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Testicular Disease


Presentation

  • The observations indicate the need of revaluation of the present protocol with incorporation of intermediate dose and subsequently high-dose methotrexate (after assessment for toxicity and tolerance), risk-stratified therapy and plausibly omission of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] spermatocele, epididymitis/ orchitis Adult and pediatric hydroceles: adult: excessive accumulation o serous fluid within tunica vaginalis, non communicating (doesn't go up peritoneum) pediatric: persistent patnet processus vaginalis, communicating Hydrocele presentation[quizlet.com]
  • Testicular disease can present in many forms including some benign findings, although it can be very difficult to discern from life threatening disease states and needs to be carefully evaluated by a Physician.[ampofny.com]
Yawning
  • By Richard Klasco, M.D Photo Credit Ask Well Photo Credit Why Do We Yawn? Reading about yawning makes people yawn. You are probably yawning right now. By Roni Caryn Rabin Latest Search Latest Articles Search Articles 13843 results for sorted by[nytimes.com]
Swelling of the Scrotum
  • This lump can be associated with swelling of the scrotum, pain and discomfort in the scrotum, or a dull ache in the lower abdomen. Because these symptoms are not specific to cancer, they should be investigated by a physician.[britannica.com]
  • For example, in inguinal hernia can produce a soft swelling in the scrotum, but the testicle itself is normal. Doctors can often recognize benign problems by simple criteria.[health.williams.edu]
  • Testicular cancer signs and symptoms may include, a painless lump or swelling in the scrotum, hardness in the testicle, pain or discomfort in the testicle and a dull ache in the lower abdomen, back, or groin.[urology.ucla.edu]
  • In front of a mirror, look for signs of swelling of the scrotum. Using both hands, place the thumbs on the top of the testicle with the index and middle fingers beneath.[livescience.com]
  • Look for swelling in the scrotum or any changes in appearance. Gently feel the scrotal sac to find a testicle. Examine the testicles one at a time.[urologyhealth.org]
Testicular Mass
  • mass: H and P imaging: scrotal US labs: tumor markers (AFP, B-hcg, LDH) sperm banking: chemo, radiation cause decreased sperm production and surgery RPLND causes ejaculatory dysfunction Tumor markers for testicular cancer: Bhcg: half life 2 days -also[quizlet.com]
  • Men with a testicular mass, or suspected mass, should undergo a scrotal ultrasound as the initial test.[med.unc.edu]
  • Patients report a history of scrotal trauma, although incidental trauma is likely to be responsible for bringing the testicular mass to patient’s attention for the first time.[timesofindia.indiatimes.com]
  • If a doctor suspect cancer after examining a testicular mass, he will order a testicular ultrasound; it’s a simple test that is very good at identifying cancer.[health.williams.edu]
Testicular Pain
  • Sudden testicular pain demands an immediate trip to the emergency room. If treatment is delayed, the testicle can die.[webmd.com]
  • This is usually a significant emergency and needs to be evaluated immediately in order to keep the testicle viable and it should be evaluated in the Emergency Room upon the first signs of acute testicular pain.[ampofny.com]
  • When symptoms do appear, they can include: testicular pain or discomfort testicular swelling lower abdominal or back pain enlargement of breast tissue Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.[healthline.com]
  • As there are no screening tests available to detect the disease, detection depends largely on your ability to spot its common (and not-so-common) symptoms, which may include a lump in the testicle, a heaviness in the scrotum, testicular pain, fatigue,[verywell.com]
  • Testicular pain There are several factors which can be involved including stress, wearing underwear that is too tight as well as sexual arousal with an erection but without ejaculation (also known as blue balls).[orchid-cancer.org.uk]

Workup

  • […] any age male unilateral scrotal swelling mostly painless scrotal heaviness, dull ache hydrocele PE unliateral scrotal swelling fluctuant non tender transilluminates may obscure the testicle: if you can't feel the testicle, get a scrotal US Hydrocele workup[quizlet.com]
  • If the ultrasound is unclear, doctors may use an MRI, "but it's not part of the standard workup," Huang said. About 90 percent of testicular cancers fall into two categories: seminoma and nonseminoma (some men have both types at once).[livescience.com]
  • Testicular Cancer Workup. Available online at . Accessed July 2014. Motzer RJ, Agarwal N, Beard C, et al. Testicular Cancer. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Care Network . 2009;7:672-693. Available online at . Accessed July 2014.[labtestsonline.it]

Treatment

  • Testicular infiltration was occasionally found during treatment in patients with high blood leucocyte counts at diagnosis but the main incidence in patients with all types of disease occurred within one year of stopping treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment As with many cancers, treatment involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, depending on the type and spread of the cancer.[britannica.com]
  • […] male unilateral scrotal swelling mostly painless scrotal heaviness, dull ache hydrocele PE unliateral scrotal swelling fluctuant non tender transilluminates may obscure the testicle: if you can't feel the testicle, get a scrotal US Hydrocele workup and treatment[quizlet.com]
  • Impact of three methods of treatment intensification on acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: long-term results of St Jude total therapy study X.[nature.com]

Prognosis

  • A reappraisal of the value of additional drugs in maintenance treatment of patients with good prognosis is needed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diagnosis and prognosis The initial investigation of a suspicious lump may involve blood tests and imaging studies.[britannica.com]

Etiology

  • […] epididymitis and/ or testis inflammation etiology: infection chemical (meds) genitourinary tract manipulation (cath/ cystoscope) trauma amiodarone TB Infectious etiologies of epididymitis/ orchitis 35: E coli children: mumps / viral E/O presentation[quizlet.com]

Epidemiology

  • […] out testicular torsion HIV testing PPD a scrotal US should show INCREASED blood flow on doppler E/O treatment ice pack, NSAIDs, scrotal support empiric antibiotics: 35 or UA: ciprofloxacin, levaquin complete resolution of inflammation can take weeks Epidemiology[quizlet.com]
  • This Primer provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis and current treatment guidelines for testicular cancer, with a focus on germ cell tumours. Liang Cheng , Peter Albers , Daniel M. Berney , Darren R.[nature.com]
  • BMJ. 2013;347:f6205 (5) SIGN (March 2011).Management of adult testicular germ cell tumours Links: classification epidemiology of testicular cancer aetiology spread clinical features/presenting features of testicular cancer staging investigations in testicular[gpnotebook.co.uk]
  • In fact, nearly half of all cases of testicular cancer occur in men ages 20 to 34, and nearly 80 percent strike before the age of 45, according to the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER).[menshealth.com]
  • Epidemiologic studies have failed to show an association between the incidence of testicular cancer and vasectomy, 12 occupational and environmental exposures, or viral illnesses.[aafp.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention There's no way to prevent testicular cancer. Some doctors recommend regular testicle self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage. But not all doctors agree.[mayoclinic.org]
  • There also is no recommended method to prevent varicoceles, hydroceles, or testicular torsion. Epididymitis can sometimes be prevented by practicing safe sex and avoiding heavy lifting or straining with a full bladder.[webmd.com]
  • Prevention Undescended testes are usually surgically moved into the scrotum before puberty to help prevent the development of cancer.[britannica.com]
  • Cancer Society.) ectopic testis one lodged in a location outside of the normal pathway of descent. gliding testis an undescended testis that can reach the top of the scrotum but then glides back up. obstructed testis an ectopic testis whose descent was prevented[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Testicular Cancer Prevention Like all cancers, there are several steps one can take to help prevent testicular cancer.[thetruthaboutcancer.com]

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