Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Thalassaemia-Haemoglobin C Disease

Thalassemia Hemoglobin C Disease


Presentation

  • Splenomegaly may or may not be present. The presence of large numbers of both microspherocytes and target cells in the blood smear should suggest the possibility of this diagnosis.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Most patients adapt well to the hemolysis, and anemia is often only borderline anemia; however, there is generally some splenomegaly present.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Hemoglobin S in moderate amounts can mean that sickle cell trait is present. Hemoglobin S in high amounts means sickle cell disease . Hemoglobin C in low amounts can mean that hemoglobin C trait is present.[northshore.org]
  • With no deletions, there is approximately 20% HbG, with one deletion about 30% G is present, and with two about 40% is present. *** Also known as D Punjab (same mutation) # Not a mutation, Lepore is the product of the indicated crossover during meiosis[wardelab.com]
  • Numerous electrophoretic bands can occur when Hb G-Philadelphia is present. When Hb AA is present, there is usually 25 to 40 % Hb G-Phil and a faint band of G, in the carbonic anhydrase location.[sctpn.net]
Anemia
  • […] methemoglobinemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - beta-thalassemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - sickle cell disease Beta-thalassemia intermedia Beta-thalassemia major Delta-beta-thalassemia Dominant beta-thalassemia Heinz body anemia[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001935 3 abnormal hemoglobin 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011902 4 anemia 60 Very frequent (99-80%) Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hemoglobin C-Beta-Thalassemia Syndrome[malacards.org]
  • This disease produces a microcytic anemia which is usually mild but which may be severe. Splenomegaly may or may not be present.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • In this book, sickle cell anemia is a synonymous for the homozygote state and it is approached elsewhere.[link.springer.com]
  • Sickle Hemoglobin-C disease may cause similar symptoms as sickle cell anemia but less anemia due to a higher blood count level.[scancainc.org]
Family History of Anemia
  • A family history of anemia in the absence of iron deficiency should prompt consideration of a hemoglobinopathy, and a number of these appear in the differential diagnosis. Hemoglobin C is an inherited mutation in the ß-globin gene.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Marfanoid Habitus
  • habitus X-linked non-syndromic intellectual deficit Synonym(s): - C- beta-thalassemia - HbC - beta-thalassemia Classification (Orphanet): - Rare genetic disease - Rare hematologic disease Classification (ICD10): - Diseases of the blood and blood-forming[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
Hoarseness
  • […] disease Juvenile Huntington disease Proteus syndrome Richieri Costa-Pereira syndrome Thrombocytopenia - absent radius Hemoglobinopathy Toms River Autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2K Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with hoarseness[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
Mild Clinical Course
  • Prolonged survival and mild clinical course. Am J Med 80(4):746–750 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Rosse WF, Gallagher D, Kinney TR et al (1990) Cooperative study of sickle cell disease transfusion and alloimmunization in sickle cell disease.[link.springer.com]
Thrombosis
  • Oxford University Press, New York, pp 472–477 Google Scholar Stein PD, Beemath A, Meyers FA, Skaf E, Olson RE (2006) Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in hospitalized patients with sickle cell disease.[link.springer.com]
  • Association of Blood Banks, American Clinical and Climatological Association, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Society of Hematology, College of American Pathologists, International Society of Blood Transfusion, International Society on Thrombosis[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] effectiveness; administer prescribed pain medication; assess emotional response to mobility deficits; ensure a safe environment with side rail up; ensure that room is not cluttered; facilitate ambulation as appropriate; monitor for skin breakdown and deep vein thrombosis[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Forgetful
  • In: Steinberg MH, Forget BG, Higgs DR, Weatherall DJ (eds) Disorders of hemoglobin genetics, pathophysiology, and clinical management, 2nd edn.[link.springer.com]
  • Suggested Reading: Bunn HF, Forget B. Hemoglobin: Molecular, Genetic and Clinical Aspects. Philadelphia, PA, Saunders, p. 453. 1986[sickle.bwh.harvard.edu]
  • People with no abnormal haemoglobin whatever ie those with AA haemoglobin phenotype have been known to die under poorly administered general anaesthesia, such as when the doctor forgets to switch on the OXYGEN supply.[sicklecell.md]

Workup

  • Medical Workup: The initial laboratory test to screen for sickle cell disease/trait is a Sickledex ; if positive then hemoglobin electrophoresis is required. Hb AS , with Hb S up to 45 % is acceptable for flying duties.[asams.org]
  • The tests that are ordered to search for haemoglobin variants are also used for thalassaemia workups. Searching for both is important because thalassaemia is sometimes inherited along with a haemoglobin variant.[labtestsonline.org.au]
  • Hemoglobin levels outside the normal range can indicate a number of different medical disorders, and your doctor may order the test to screen for them or as part of a diagnostic workup.[verywell.com]
Microcytic Anemia
  • anemia 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001935 3 abnormal hemoglobin 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011902 4 anemia 60 Very frequent (99-80%) Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hemoglobin C-Beta-Thalassemia[malacards.org]
  • This disease produces a microcytic anemia which is usually mild but which may be severe. Splenomegaly may or may not be present.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Patients present with a moderate to severe microcytic anemia (average MCV 70 fl, Hgb 6 g/dl) and an increased reticulocyte count.[path.upmc.edu]
  • The RBC count is also useful as a diagnostic adjunct because the thalassemias produce a microcytic anemia with an associated increase in the RBC number.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
Microcytic Anemia
  • anemia 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001935 3 abnormal hemoglobin 60 33 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011902 4 anemia 60 Very frequent (99-80%) Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hemoglobin C-Beta-Thalassemia[malacards.org]
  • This disease produces a microcytic anemia which is usually mild but which may be severe. Splenomegaly may or may not be present.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Patients present with a moderate to severe microcytic anemia (average MCV 70 fl, Hgb 6 g/dl) and an increased reticulocyte count.[path.upmc.edu]
  • The RBC count is also useful as a diagnostic adjunct because the thalassemias produce a microcytic anemia with an associated increase in the RBC number.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
Howell-Jolly Bodies
  • Nucleated red cells and Howell-Jolly bodies are often present. The total WBC count is elevated to 12,000-20,000/cmm, with a predominance of neutrophils. The platelet count is usually increased; the sedimentation rate is slow.[ndri.com]
  • As the spleen becomes compromised with repeated infarctions, Howell-Jolly bodies are also seen. Several factors can lead to crises in sickle cell disease (Table 3). Anything that leads to hypoxia will promote sickling.[wardelab.com]
  • Reticulin and Howell Jolly bodies do not have the distinctive pattern of Hb H inclusions; however, a brisk reticulocytosis can make identification of a rare H-containing cell difficult. electrophoresis Traditionally, electrophoresis has been the method[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
Heinz Bodies
  • […] dominant methemoglobinemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - beta-thalassemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - sickle cell disease Beta-thalassemia intermedia Beta-thalassemia major Delta-beta-thalassemia Dominant beta-thalassemia Heinz[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • body anemia Hb-C disease Hb-D disease Hb-E disease Hemoglobinopathy NOS Unstable hemoglobin hemolytic disease Type 1 Excludes familial polycythemia ( D75.0 ) Hb-M disease ( D74.0 ) hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia ( D56.5 ) hereditary persistence of fetal[icd10data.com]
  • -severe anemia requiring repeated blood transfusions -elevated levels of ferrous iron (Fe 2 ) in the red cells -presence of Heinz bodies on Wright-stained blood smear -elevated methemoglobin Heinz bodies are found when hemoglobin: -precipitates -has higher[quizlet.com]
  • Unstable hemoglobin (Heinz body anemia) Certain abnormalities in the globin chain sequence produce a hemoglobin that is intrinsically unstable. When the hemoglobin destabilizes, it forms up into erythrocyte inclusions called Heinz bodies.[web2.iadfw.net]
  • Waugh SM, Low PS (1985) Hemichrome binding to band 3: nucleation of Heinz bodies on the erythrocyte membrane. Biochemistry 24: 34–39. View Article Google Scholar 9.[journals.plos.org]
Heinz Bodies
  • […] dominant methemoglobinemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - beta-thalassemia Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin - sickle cell disease Beta-thalassemia intermedia Beta-thalassemia major Delta-beta-thalassemia Dominant beta-thalassemia Heinz[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • body anemia Hb-C disease Hb-D disease Hb-E disease Hemoglobinopathy NOS Unstable hemoglobin hemolytic disease Type 1 Excludes familial polycythemia ( D75.0 ) Hb-M disease ( D74.0 ) hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia ( D56.5 ) hereditary persistence of fetal[icd10data.com]
  • -severe anemia requiring repeated blood transfusions -elevated levels of ferrous iron (Fe 2 ) in the red cells -presence of Heinz bodies on Wright-stained blood smear -elevated methemoglobin Heinz bodies are found when hemoglobin: -precipitates -has higher[quizlet.com]
  • Unstable hemoglobin (Heinz body anemia) Certain abnormalities in the globin chain sequence produce a hemoglobin that is intrinsically unstable. When the hemoglobin destabilizes, it forms up into erythrocyte inclusions called Heinz bodies.[web2.iadfw.net]
  • Waugh SM, Low PS (1985) Hemichrome binding to band 3: nucleation of Heinz bodies on the erythrocyte membrane. Biochemistry 24: 34–39. View Article Google Scholar 9.[journals.plos.org]

Treatment

  • 295 ページ - Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). ‎ 3 ページ - Because of this human characteristic of dislike[books.google.com]
  • Without treatment, people with SCD may die in childhood, from problems such as infection. Good treatment makes a great difference. Improvements in treatment mean that life expectancy has increased.[patient.info]
  • As scientific progress and technology improved, new treatment regimens evolved for sickle cell disease patients.[hematology.org]
  • Which treatment must I follow if I have the disease? If early diagnosis is made, treatment to prevent infectious episodes is started soon after birth.[enerca.org]
  • Treatment Treatment often is not needed for mild beta thalassemia. For more severe forms of the condition, the only cure is transplant, either bone marrow transplant or cord blood transplant.[news-medical.net]

Prognosis

  • However, in some cases the symptoms of beta-zero thalassemia are worse than those seen in homozygous sickle cell disease and is often associated with a poor prognosis.[hinapatelfoundation.org]
  • Folic acid supplementation may help produce normal red blood cells and improve the symptoms of anemia [7] Prognosis [ edit ] Overall, hemoglobin C disease is one of the more benign hemoglobinopathies. [5] Mild-to-moderate reduction in RBC lifespan may[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pain episodes, end-organ damage, and prognosis may be similar or perhaps even worse for bone and retinal disease when compared to homozygous sickle anemia.[sctpn.net]
  • There is a lot of individual variation in the severity and outlook (prognosis) for SCD. Some people get very few problems from their SCD; others have more symptoms or more complications.[patient.info]
  • The prognosis of homozygous Hb C disease is excellent. An individual may inherit a Hb S gene from one parent and a Hb C gene from the other. The result of this double whammy is Hb SC disease.[web2.iadfw.net]

Etiology

  • […] body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]
  • The etiology of this patient's anemia is most likely due to double heterozygosity for Hb E and beta thalassemia.[path.upmc.edu]
  • Anemia may be classified on the basis of etiology, or morphological characteristic.[ndri.com]
  • Genetic etiologies for phenotypic diversity in sickle cell anaemia. Scientific World Journal. 2009; 9: 46-67.. PubMed Google Scholar Akanni EO, Oseni BS, Bamisaye EO, Raji AA, Mewoyeka OO, Hassan RO.[panafrican-med-journal.com]

Epidemiology

  • C- beta-thalassemia - HbC - beta-thalassemia Classification (Orphanet): - Rare genetic disease - Rare hematologic disease Classification (ICD10): - Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism - Epidemiological[csbg.cnb.csic.es]
  • ., Epidemiology of haemoglobin disorders in Europe: an overview. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 67, 39 (2007) R. Herklotz et al., Hämoglobinopathien ? Klinik und Diagnostik von Thalassämien und anomalen Hämoglobinen. Therap. Umschau 63, 35 (2006) A.[charite.de]
  • We are grateful to the late Frank Livingstone for his invaluable global database of epidemiological studies. Funding: Bernadette Modell is a retired Wellcome Principal Research Fellow.[who.int]
  • Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network Consortium. A global network for investigating the genomic epidemiology of malaria. Nature 456, 732–737 (2008). 48. Gilks, W. R., Richardson, S. & Spiegelhalter, D. Markov chain Monte Carlo in Practice.[nature.com]
  • Individuals with hemoglobin C disease have sporadic episodes of musculoskeletal (joint) pain. [5] People with hemoglobin C disease can expect to lead a normal life. [7] Epidemiology [ edit ] Hemoglobin C gene is found in 2-3% of African-Americans [3][en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In: Steinberg MH, Forget BG, Higgs DR, Weatherall DJ (eds) Disorders of hemoglobin genetics, pathophysiology, and clinical management, 2nd edn.[link.springer.com]
  • Further Reading All Thalassemia Content Thalassemia Genetic Prevalence Thalassemia Prevalence Thalassemia Pathophysiology Thalassemia Treatment[news-medical.net]
  • Pathophysiology There are various types of hemoglobins like A1, A2, S, C, and F. In the electromagnetic field, the hemoglobin moves with different rate and form various bands. The patient sample is compared to the normal Hb pattern.[labpedia.net]

Prevention

  • Counselling is essential to prevent an increase in the incidence of haemoglobin variants and the thalassaemias.[star2.com]
  • There are a number of different treatments which help to prevent sickling episodes, or prevent related problems such as infection.[patient.info]
  • This drug prevented iron-induced heart disease and helped patients live much longer. Recently, two oral drugs have become available to remove iron.[hematology.org]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urge people with thalassemia to keep their vaccinations up to date, to prevent illness.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Prevention is making only a small impression: affected birth prevalence is estimated at 2.55 per 1000.[who.int]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!