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Thelazia Callipaeda


Presentation

  • Thus, we report a rare presentation of thelaziasis, that is, periocular involvement. This case presentation is first of its kind in the Indian literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • By the present study, the presence of human ocular T. callipaeda infestation is second reported case in Bangladesh. Ophthalmologists should be aware about parasitic infestation of conjunctiva.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present here detailed clinical and morphological information pertaining to T. callipaeda infection, which is considered to be a probably neglected parasitic disease of the eye.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 31-year-old man from Nakhon Pathom, Thailand presented to the hospital with a foreign body sensation in and excessive lacrimation from the right eye for one week. His visual acuity was normal.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of the first ocular thelaziosis in a human male patient in Croatia is presented. Thelaziosis is a zoonosis caused by the nematodes of the genus Thelazia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain
  • We report here a case of a 42-year-old female who presented with pain, redness, and cystic swelling in the right lacrimal sac area for 8 months. Ocular examination was within normal limits. Excision biopsy of the cyst revealed a live worm.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He felt a bulge-sticking pain in his left eye and extracted 5 small nematode worms by himself half a day before visiting the hospital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Canine thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda infects dogs, cats, foxes, rabbits, and humans resulting in conjunctivitis, pain and excessive lacrimation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She had no photopsia or field loss, and no pain, redness, or discharge. She had no past ocular or medical history, and was otherwise well. On examination she had a visual acuity of 6/60 in the right eye, and 6/6 in the left eye.[doi.org]
Italian
  • Parassitologia 1988; 30:38 (Italian). 2. Otranto D, Eberhard ML. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye. Parasit Vectors 2011; 4: 1-21. 3.[content.sciendo.com]
  • Veterinaria 2 , 47 – 50 ( In Italian, with abstract in English ). Sharrocks , A. D. ( 1994 ). The design of primers for PCR . In PCR Technology: Current Innovations ( ed. Griffin , H. G. and Griffin , A. H. ), pp. 5 – 11 . CRC Press Inc. , London .[doi.org]
  • Veterinaria 2, 47 – 50 ( In Italian, with abstract in English ). Sharrocks, A. D. ( 1994 ). The design of primers for PCR. In PCR Technology: Current Innovations ( ed. Griffin, H. G. and Griffin, A. H. ), pp. 5 – 11. CRC Press Inc., London. Shi, Y.[doi.org]
Fracture
  • Orbital subperiosteal abscess and blindness complicating a minimally displaced zygomatic complex fracture. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;33:185–188. 14. Choudhury AR. Thelaziasis. Am J Ophthalmol 1969;67:773–774. 15.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • Orbital subperiosteal abscess and blindness complicating a minimally displaced zygomatic complex fracture. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;33:185–188. Choudhury AR. Thelaziasis. Am J Ophthalmol 1969;67:773–774.[synapse.koreamed.org]
Flushing
  • When the presence of nematodes was confirmed, the conjunctival fornix was flushed with a saline solution for parasite recovery and counting, and the dogs were treated appropriately.[doi.org]
  • Treatment is based on the mechanical removal of the worms by flushing the eyes.[parasite-journal.org]
Petechiae
  • Early signs including rheum and light ocular discharge are frequently followed by conjunctivitis, petechiae, oedema, keratitis and epiphora [ 13 ]. Treatment is based on the mechanical removal of the worms by flushing the eyes.[parasite-journal.org]
Photopsia
  • She had no photopsia or field loss, and no pain, redness, or discharge. She had no past ocular or medical history, and was otherwise well. On examination she had a visual acuity of 6/60 in the right eye, and 6/6 in the left eye.[doi.org]
Anterior Uveitis
  • Intraocular localization ofOnchocerca lupiadult worm in a dog with anterior uveitis: A case report . Veterinary Ophthalmology, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 245. CrossRef Google Scholar Maia, C. Catarino, A. L. Almeida, B. Ramos, C.[doi.org]
Blurred Vision
  • A 41-year-old woman experienced swelling, itching sensation and occasional blurred vision of the right eye 2 weeks after a small group of flies swarmed her eye while she was hiking.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Visual Impairment
  • On top of the gross factor (sorry about the photo), they can cause health issues such as conjunctivitis, visual impairment and corneal scarring.[dailyparasite.blogspot.com]
Blepharospasm
  • The most frequent signs observed in infected dogs included conjunctivitis (74% of the positive cases), epiphora (70%), pruritus (35%), purulent exudation (33%), and blepharospasm (20%).[parasite-journal.org]
Irritability
  • […] causative organism in thelaziasis, a well described condition affecting the external eye. 1 It is primarily a parasite of the conjunctiva in dogs, and is also found in rabbits and humans. 2 Its presence in the conjunctival sac causes lacrimation and irritation[doi.org]
  • Case summary A 71-year-old male visited the ophthalmic clinic, complaining of itching, a foreign body sensation, and irritation in the right eye. He was previously diagnosed with Thelazia callipaeda infection, 3 months prior, at another hospital.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • The clinical signs of thelaziosis are related to the presence of irritant foreign-bodies, i.e., the nematodes, in the conjunctival sac.[parasite-journal.org]

Workup

Gnathostoma Spinigerum
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum , a close relative of Thelazia , is quite frequently found within the eye and causes major tissue destruction.[doi.org]
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum, a close relative of Thelazia, is quite frequently found within the eye and causes major tissue destruction.[doi.org]
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum mitochondrial genome sequence: a novel gene arrangement and its phylogenetic position within the class chromadorea. Sci. Rep. 5:12691. doi: 10.1038/srep12691 PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar Liu, G.[frontiersin.org]

Treatment

  • The efficacy of treatments was established by eye inspection and parasite viability and vitality after 1, 5 and 9 days after animal treatments (groups A and B) and after 9 days only in untreated animals (group C).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The dogs were clinically examined for the presence of eyeworms before and again 7 days after treatment. Dogs still positive were given a second treatment and re-checked again a week later.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Allocation and treatment At inclusion, each dog was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups.[parasite-journal.org]
  • Treatment with ivermectin is recommended for cases of thelaziasis, but in the absence of preoperative and postoperative symptoms of inflammation due to infestation, pharmacological treatment was not commenced in this case.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • Until now, the etiological agent of all human thelaziasis reported in China was identified as T. callipaeda , but few cases reported detailed morphological characteristics.[frontiersin.org]
  • The seasonality of human thelaziasis may impair correct etiologic diagnosis of this disease because spring and summer are the seasons in which allergic conjunctivitis (e.g., by pollens) occurs most frequently.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • CONCLUSIONS: The Asian population of T. callipaeda has a high level of genetic diversity, but further studies should be performed to explore the biology, ecology and epidemiology of T. callipaeda.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Descriptive epidemiology 2. Clinical features 3. Distribution map 4. Images 5. Global status and status in every relevant country 6.[books.google.es]
  • This basic knowledge of the development of T. callipaeda will hopefully help future epidemiological studies to identify the intermediate hosts and define the likely risk for vectors in field conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Molecular epidemiological survey on the vectors of Thelazia gulosa, Thelazia rhodesi and Thelazia skrjabini (Spirurida: Thelaziidae). Parasitology 127, 365 – 373. ROSSI, L. & BERTAGLIA, P. ( 1989 ).[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Key words: Thelazia callipaeda / eyeworm / prevention / dog / milbemycin oxime / Europe W.[doi.org]
  • Thirty dogs were treated with milbemycin oxime monthly from June to November with the recommended dose rate for the prevention of heartworm disease ( or 0.5mg/kg), 30 dogs served as untreated controls.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To prevent infection, the fly vector should be avoided in areas in which the parasite is endemic. The patient has not reported any recurrence since the removal of the parasites.[nejm.org]
  • Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions.[doi.org]

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