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Thiopental

Penthiobarbital


Presentation

  • A patient who sustained thiopental extravasation and received local injection of lidocaine and local application of EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics) for treatment with excellent results is presented hereunder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Administration of improper drugs into epidural space is occasionally present in anesthetic practice. In most instances it would not contribute to significant neurological complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both patients received continuous infusions of thiopental and had present a condition (hypothermia) or drug (cimetidine) known to inhibit hepatic microsomal enzyme activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case is presented involving a young woman on several illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine and cannabis) as well as two medications and a solvent used for their anesthetic and narcotic properties: thiopental, ketamine and chloroform.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We conclude that inhalational anesthesia with sevoflurane presents a well-tolerated alternative for ECT anesthesia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Contraindications : Acute intermittent porphyria Liver and kidney disease Severe pulmonary insufficiency. e.g. emphysema· Obstructive sleep apnoea. For detailed query or in case of uncertainty, Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.[doctoralerts.com]
  • Contraindications Absolute Contraindications Absence of suitable veins for intravenous administration, hypersensitivity (allergy) to barbiturates and variegate porphyria (South African) or acute intermittent porphyria.[druglib.com]
  • Acute attacks of variegate or acute intermittent porphyria may be triggered in susceptible individuals. Drug interactions Other cerebral depressants may augment the action of thiopental.[apps.who.int]
Camping
  • Fentanyl, morphine, ketamine, diazepam, and midazolam did not significantly affect isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Aspiration
  • Obstetric patients undergoing caesarean section under general anaesthesia require rapid induction due to high risk of aspiration. Rocuronium provides the shortest onset of action of nondepolarizing blocking agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Subsequently, I started to use thiopental along with fentanyl (2-3 µgm/kg) for painful procedures such as lumbar punctures and bone marrow aspirates.[blog.pedsedation.org]
Sore Throat
  • At 2 h postoperatively, the incidence of sore throat, dysphagia, and postoperative nausea and vomiting in group T was higher than in group P (24% vs 13% for sore throat, 15% vs 3% for dysphagia, 20% vs 11% for nausea, 14% vs 6% for vomiting, P 0.05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pharyngitis
  • We concluded that, when propofol, rather than thiopental, is used for the induction of anesthesia, it results in a lower incidence of early pharyngeal morbidity and postoperative nausea and vomiting after the insertion of a LMA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hoarseness
  • Adverse responses were noted (yes/no) at each time point including sore throat, sore mouth, sore jaw, hoarseness, dysphonia, and dysphagia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysphagia
  • At 2 h postoperatively, the incidence of sore throat, dysphagia, and postoperative nausea and vomiting in group T was higher than in group P (24% vs 13% for sore throat, 15% vs 3% for dysphagia, 20% vs 11% for nausea, 14% vs 6% for vomiting, P 0.05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sore Mouth
  • Adverse responses were noted (yes/no) at each time point including sore throat, sore mouth, sore jaw, hoarseness, dysphonia, and dysphagia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Formication
  • Cartridges were washed using 10% methanol in ammonium acetate buffer (50mM, pH 7) before elution with mobile phase comprising 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 0.55mL/min using a 7.2min run time.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Pneumoperitoneum
  • Creation of pneumoperitoneum resulted in a significant increase in IOP which remained elevated throughout the operation in both groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Main treatment characteristics were recorded (as total electric charge received seizure threshold, number of treatments, and the mean time for recovery) along the whole treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thiopental treatment can result in falsely elevated serum sodium. This is a critical finding since high sodium levels preclude administrating mannitol or hypertonic saline for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, clinical responses to treatment were evaluated with tests of cognitive functions before and after a course of ECT. Adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of the 3 treatment groups were similar.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early diagnosis and treatment may bear a favorable outcome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Molecular evidence for thiopental-mediated neuroprotection favours a positive clinical evaluation of barbiturate treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • CONCLUSION: Because this multicenter study has an epidemiological character, the prevalence of i.v. thiopental use in psychiatric emergency settings in Japan is considered to be 8.0%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Attention should be focused on the patient's reactions, the feeling of an intense pain and withdrawal of the leg during injection so that timely therapeutic measures are undertaken and the sad episode is prevented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thiopental seemed to be the best drug for controlling cardiovascular parameters, especially HR, and it also prevents IOP rise.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alfentanil 55 μg/kg was needed to prevent increases in ABP postintubation 10% above baseline with 95% probability. One individual needed a bolus of vasopressor postintubation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is suggested that inhibition of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity may prevent thiopental's metabolism to its major metabolite, a carboxylic acid analogue, and increase the amount of thiopental desulfurated to pentobarbital.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Alendronate slows bone loss while increasing bone mass, which may prevent bone fractures. Alendronate is used to treat or prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and steroid-induced osteoporosis.[emedicinehealth.com]

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