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Thyroid Gland Disorder

Thyroid Disorder


Presentation

  • The classic presentation of Graves disease include: 1. Hyperthyroidism 2. Goitre 3. Opthalmopathy 4. Dermopathy (unusual) 5.[sites.google.com]
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Presents the chemistry, synthesis, and secretion of thyroid hormones. Covers hamburger thyrotoxicosis, pregnancy, fetal development, and sodium-iodide.[dmoztools.net]
  • Thyroid cancer often presents without symptoms and just causes a goiter or nodules that usually will not impact the thyroid's function or cause any pain in the early stages.[self.com]
  • N Engl J Med 2018; 379:e23 A 53-year-old man presented to the endocrinology clinic with fatigue and sensitivity to cold.[nejm.org]
  • When the normal amount of thyroid hormone is present to, the person is referred to as euthyroid.[news-medical.net]
Goiter
  • E05.2 Thyrotoxicosis with toxic multinodular goiter... E05.20 Thyrotoxicosis with toxic multinodular goiter... E05.21 Thyrotoxicosis with toxic multinodular goiter...[icd10data.com]
  • In modern-day America, goiters due to iodine deficiency are no longer common because our salt is iodized, but goiters are still a problem in some areas of the world.[study.com]
  • Toxic nodular goiter or multinodular goiter. Hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodular goiter is where one or more nodules of the thyroid becomes overactive. The overactive nodules actually act as benign thyroid tumours.[hon.ch]
  • Thyroid Disease Pathology lecture notes and pictures of goiter, including cancer.[curlie.org]
  • Treatment with thyroid hormone replacement medication (levothyroxine) may be used to decrease the size of the goiter; surgery is needed if the goiter becomes too large and narrows the airway.[verywell.com]
Thyroid Nodule
  • More information Thyroid Disease Manager Features a complete analysis of thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, nodules, cancer, and aspects of physiology. eMedicine - Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Discusses the abnormal findings on thyroid function tests[curlie.org]
  • Most thyroid nodules are identified on imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to the thyroid gland (carotid duplex, CT scans of the neck or chest). Once a thyroid nodule is found, it should be evaluated to ensure that it is benign.[uofmhealth.org]
  • Thyroid Nodules A thyroid nodule is a small lump in the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are common. These nodules can be either a growth of thyroid tissue or a fluid-filled cyst, which forms a lump in the thyroid gland.[hormone.org]
  • nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thyroid nodules Nodules are lumps or abnormal masses within the thyroid. Nodules can be caused by benign cysts, benign tumors, or, less commonly, by cancers of the thyroid. Nodules may be single or multiple and can vary in size.[rxlist.com]
Fatigue
  • Initially: Fatigue, constipation, cold intolerance, slowing of mental and physical performance Late: weight gain, forgetfulness, dry and brittle hair, slow reflexes, deep hoarse voice, macroglossia, periorbital puffiness, pretibial myxedema, hypercholesterolemia[quizlet.com]
  • The following is a list of symptoms typical of a thyroid gland disorder – some are specific to hypothyroidism and others to hyperthyroidism : Fatigue Weight gain or weight loss Changes in heart rate, including increased blood pressure and heart palpitations[ctsinuscenter.com]
  • The review ... read more Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Possibly Explained by Lower Levels of Key Thyroid Hormones Mar. 20, 2018 — A new study reveals that chronic fatigue syndrome, a debilitating condition with unknown causes, can be explained by lower thyroid[sciencedaily.com]
  • Other autoimmune disorders Emotional or physical stress Pregnancy or recent childbirth Smoking Graves’ Disease Symptoms in Women Common signs and symptoms of Graves’ disease in women include: Irritability Difficulty sleeping Fatigue A rapid or irregular[usa.healthcare.siemens.com]
  • Weight loss, rapid heartbeat, anxiety, fatigue, trouble sleeping, tremors and sweating. Hypothyroidism. Thinning hair, weight gain, fatigue, muscle weakness, joint pain, depression and impaired memory. Thyroid cancer.[mayoclinichealthsystem.org]
Weight Gain
  • Initially: Fatigue, constipation, cold intolerance, slowing of mental and physical performance Late: weight gain, forgetfulness, dry and brittle hair, slow reflexes, deep hoarse voice, macroglossia, periorbital puffiness, pretibial myxedema, hypercholesterolemia[quizlet.com]
  • The following is a list of symptoms typical of a thyroid gland disorder – some are specific to hypothyroidism and others to hyperthyroidism : Fatigue Weight gain or weight loss Changes in heart rate, including increased blood pressure and heart palpitations[ctsinuscenter.com]
  • “Lack of hormones decreases metabolism and calorie burning, so you may see gradual but unexplained weight gain,” says Dr. Gharib.[rd.com]
  • This can lead to everything from weight gain to hair loss to heart trouble. If your doctor diagnoses you with Hashimoto’s, he or she will likely tell you it’s not that a big deal.[scientificamerican.com]
  • Unintended weight gain and weight loss are common, and both can be a daunting challenge to rectify.[todaysdietitian.com]
Myxedema
  • CAUSES Myxedema can occur in: Hyperthyroidism, associated with pretibial myxedema and exophthalmos. Pretibial myxedema can occur in 1–4% of patients with Graves' disease, a cause of hyperthyroidism.[slideshare.net]
  • This situation may progress to confusion, stupor, or coma (myxedema coma). Myxedema coma is a life-threatening complication in which breathing slows, seizures occur, and blood flow to the brain decreases.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Initially: Fatigue, constipation, cold intolerance, slowing of mental and physical performance Late: weight gain, forgetfulness, dry and brittle hair, slow reflexes, deep hoarse voice, macroglossia, periorbital puffiness, pretibial myxedema, hypercholesterolemia[quizlet.com]
  • Pruritus pretibial myxedema: this is a mucinosis in which excessive amounts of mucopolysaccharides accumulate in the dermis and subcutis of the skin, to cause localized thickening of the pretibial skin.[news-medical.net]
  • E03.3 Postinfectious hypothyroidism E03.4 Atrophy of thyroid (acquired) E03.5 Myxedema coma E03.8 Other specified hypothyroidism E03.9 Hypothyroidism, unspecified ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Codes E04-* E04 Other nontoxic goiter E04.0 Nontoxic diffuse goiter[icd10data.com]
Hoarseness
  • Initially: Fatigue, constipation, cold intolerance, slowing of mental and physical performance Late: weight gain, forgetfulness, dry and brittle hair, slow reflexes, deep hoarse voice, macroglossia, periorbital puffiness, pretibial myxedema, hypercholesterolemia[quizlet.com]
  • Facial expressions become dull, the voice is hoarse, speech is slow, eyelids droop, and the eyes and face become puffy. Usually only one blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Later symptoms of an underactive thyroid include: a low-pitched and hoarse voice a puffy-looking face thinned or partly missing eyebrows a slow heart rate hearing loss anaemia Page last reviewed: 27/04/2018 Next review due: 27/04/2021[nhs.uk]
  • As it progresses and cancerous nodules grow, you may experience pain in the neck, difficulty swallowing, or a hoarse voice.[self.com]
  • You may feel swelling or lump or discomfort in the neck or a hoarse voice. Goiter can occur both in hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. 13.[healthyandnaturalworld.com]
Tachycardia
  • Firstly, from the reports ( attachment removed to protect patient identity ) it appears that he is having bradycardia and sinus arrhythmia, but no tachycardia. So, according to me, electrophysiology (EP) studies may be helpful, but not necessary.[icliniq.com]
  • -- Chapter 243: Focal Atrial Tachycardia -- Section 4: Disorders of the Heart -- Chapter 263: Multiple and Mixed Valvular Heart Disease -- Chapter 264: Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult -- Part 7: Disorders of the Respiratory System -- Section 1:[worldcat.org]
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS For Hyperthyroidism:- • Tachycardia • Palpitations • Nervousness • Tremors • Increased BP • Heat intolerance 10. .[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms and signs that result from increased adrenergic stimulation include tachycardia and anxiety and may be more pronounced in younger patients and those with larger goiters ( 28 ).[doi.org]
Alopecia
  • Fine, soft hair: this might occur with a diffuse non-scarring form of hair loss (alopecia). Plummer's nails: this is characterized by a concave contouring which raises the nails away from the nail bed.[news-medical.net]
Palmar Erythema
  • An increase in cutaneous blood flow causes the warmth which often occurs along with redness of the face, elbows, and palms (palmar erythema). Fine, soft hair: this might occur with a diffuse non-scarring form of hair loss (alopecia).[news-medical.net]
Headache
  • For the last six months, I was having headache and confusion plus slightly increased urination. Last wee... Read Full » Dr. Sagar Ramesh Makode Cardiologist Answer: Hello, Welcome to icliniq.com.[icliniq.com]
  • Medscape Education Clinical Briefs , February 2017 The Nurse View: Practice Pearls in the Use of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in NSCLC Learn about the use of checkpoint inhibitors in patients with NSCLC Medscape Education Nurses , January 2017 Can Headache[medscape.org]
  • Redness and pain Puffiness around the eyes Bulging of the eyes Dry eye and irritation, occurring when the eyelids cannot close completely over bulging eyes Progressive swelling may cause: Increased pressure inside the eye socket Pressure-pain or deep headache[umkelloggeye.org]
  • Pain, headache, and thermal sensations -- X. The nervous system: B. The special senses. 49. The eye: I. Optics of vision; 50. The eye: II. Receptor and neural function of the retina; 51. The eye: III. Central neurophysiology of vision; 52.[worldcat.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment during the active phase of the disease focuses on preserving sight and the integrity of the cornea as well as providing treatment for double vision when it interferes with daily functioning and becomes bothersome.[umkelloggeye.org]
  • If as a result of the treatment the gland ceases to function, lifetime treatment with the synthetic hormone becomes essential.[nytimes.com]
  • About 95% of nodules are benign (not cancer), and most do not require any treatment or surgery.[uofmhealth.org]
  • Treatment of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism involves taking an anti-thyroid drug.[verywell.com]

Prognosis

  • N Engl J Med 2017; 377:203-206 The excellent prognosis associated with most low-risk cancers combined with the potential for avoiding treatment side effects make active surveillance a promising alternative to more intensive approaches.[nejm.org]
  • We now include a separate page on the characteristics of each type of thyroid cancer and its typical treatment, follow-up, and prognosis.[endocrineweb.com]
  • The somatic RET codon M918T mutation in sporadic MTC appears to portend an aggressive clinical course and a poor prognosis ( 24, 25 ).[dx.doi.org]

Etiology

  • Introduction: Inflammatory disorders of thyroid gland are a mixture of various disorders characterized by variable clinical presentations, etiologies and treatment modalities.[sites.google.com]
  • Hypothyroidism has multiple etiologies and manifestations. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results: Topics addressed include the etiology, epidemiology, clinical and laboratory evaluation, management, and consequences of hypothyroidism.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Environmental iodine influences the epidemiology of non-malignant thyroid disease. Iodine supplementation of populations with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also highlight the pressing need for detailed epidemiological surveys of thyroid dysfunction and iodine status in developing countries.[doi.org]
  • Topics addressed include the etiology, epidemiology, clinical and laboratory evaluation, management, and consequences of hypothyroidism. Screening, treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and areas for future research are also covered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Medscape Education Diabetes & Endocrinology , November 2016 Hypoparathyroidism: New Treatment Concepts and Guidelines Gain insights on the epidemiology and burden of this disorder and balance the benefits and limitations of currently recommended therapy[medscape.org]
  • Co-author David Melzer, professor of epidemiology and public health at the Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, said: "There have long been suspicions that PFOA concentrations might be linked to changes in thyroid hormone levels.[theguardian.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Various auto-antibodies may be present against thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin and TSH receptors.[slideshare.net]
  • Sinossi: "The goal of Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine is to introduce students to clinical medicine by reviewing the pathophysiologic basis of the symptoms and signs of various common diseases.[worldcat.org]
  • Hyperthyroidism The precise pathophysiology that underlies the characteristic cutaneous symptoms of hyperthyroidism still requires elucidation.[news-medical.net]
  • Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease." Institute of Medicine. 2003. Medicare Coverage of Routine Screening for Thyroid Dysfunction.[nap.edu]
  • Respiratory insufficiency -- pathophysiology, diagnosis, oxygen therapy -- VIII. Aviation, space, and deep-sea diving physiology. 43. Aviation, high-altitude, and space physiology; 44.[worldcat.org]

Prevention

  • IMAGE: A preventive approach to lifestyle management can effectively control or prevent thyroid disorder. Photograph: Paresh Gandhi/ Rediff.com.[rediff.com]
  • Preventive Services Task Force] 08/01/2013 Thyroid Nodules 11/15/2009 Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism: Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement [U.S.[aafp.org]
  • Unfortunately, sufferers will likely have to be on medication for the rest of their life, but in most cases these drugs do not prevent the patient from leading a normal life and can prevent major complications, such as heart disease and pregnancy issues[diabetes.co.uk]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2012. 11.[todaysdietitian.com]
  • Rarer causes of hypothyroidism include some inherited disorders in which an abnormality of the enzymes in thyroid cells prevents the gland from making or secreting enough thyroid hormones.[merckmanuals.com]

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