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  • We present here the case of an adolescent with a novel presentation of copper-metabolism disorder who exhibited acute severe hemilingual dyskinesia and prominent tics, with ballismus of the upper limbs, but had normal brain and spinal MRI results and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case provides additional evidence supporting the role of basal ganglia circuitry in the pathophysiology of tic disorder and its comorbid states.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this commentary, we highlight the large degree of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analysis of trials involving alpha-2 agonist medications and present possible explanations for the observed heterogeneity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The objective of the present study was to present additional reliability data.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multivariable analyses showed that boys, children living in urbanized areas, children whose parents had white-collar jobs, and children with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma exhibited a significantly increased risk of tics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] with a novel presentation of copper-metabolism disorder who exhibited acute severe hemilingual dyskinesia and prominent tics, with ballismus of the upper limbs, but had normal brain and spinal MRI results and did not show any signs of dysarthria or dysphagia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Twitch
  • The most commonly reported adverse events were sedation (39%), fatigue (33%), insomnia (33%), somnolence (28%), anxiety (22%), headache (22%), and muscle twitching (22%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Unlike tics, the majority of muscle twitches are isolated occurrences, not repeated actions. Muscle twitches are also known as myoclonic jerks. They are entirely involuntary and cannot be controlled or suppressed.[webmd.com]
  • ‘Others discovered that after months or years of treatment they developed uncontrollable muscle twitches or tics that were often irreversible, even after stopping the drugs.’[oxforddictionaries.com]
  • A simple tic is purposeless, such as an eye blink, any other muscle twitch, a grunt, or a production of a noise. A complex tic consists of a muscle movement with a purpose, such as scratching, throwing, or chewing.[childbrain.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • The affected individual, who also carries a rare homozygous sequence variant in LAMA1, had muscle weakness, myopia, and facial tics. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed mild volume loss and periventricular T2 prolongation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Facial Grimacing
  • Motor tics can be of an endless variety and may include such movements as hand-clapping, neck stretching, mouth movements, head, arm or leg jerks, and facial grimacing.[sciencedaily.com]
  • Some complex motor tics include: Facial grimacing Touching people or things Obscene gesturing or gyrating movements Like motor tics, vocal tics can be simple or complex.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • He did well on ADHD stimulant medication for three years, until he developed a repetitive sudden twisting of his neck and facial grimacing. Randy was not aware that he did this until he was teased by his classmates.[additudemag.com]
  • Simple rapid movements, resembling a body spasm, are termed simple motor tics such as eye blinking, head jerks, and facial grimace.[ocdtypes.com]
  • Tics that affect the muscles used to produce speech are known as vocal tics, and can range from grunts or whistles to the repetition of complete words or phrases.[medicinenet.com]
  • A tic may take the form of sounds, such as clearing the throat and, less frequently, grunting noises. Shouting out words and profanities — the stereotypical image of tic disorder — is rare.[additudemag.com]
  • Tics may be motor or vocal; the vocal tics include humming, grunting, or saying actual words, usually in an explosive, spastic fashion, (the words may be curses). Tics may be simple or complex.[childbrain.com]
  • Common examples include: coughing grunting animal noises, such as barking snorting hissing sniffing clearing the throat squeaking repeating a sound, word or phrase using obscene or offensive words and phrases (this is uncommon) Sometimes the normal flow[nhs.uk]
  • Vocal tics may be either noises or words, and the vocal language tics may consist of obscenities (coprolalia) and repetitions of speech that has been heard (echolalia).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Coprolalia is a highly-publicized, though uncommon, symptom of Tourette syndrome.[sciencedaily.com]
  • Barely audible muttering Calling out Coprolalia Echolalia "Hey," "Wow," etc.[tourette13.tripod.com]
  • Coprolalia (saying aloud socially objectionable words or phrases) is a highly publicized symptom of Tourette syndrome ; however, only about 10% of TS patients exhibit coprolalia.[psychcentral.com]
  • Vocal tics may be either noises or words, and the vocal language tics may consist of obscenities (coprolalia) and repetitions of speech that has been heard (echolalia).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Barely audible muttering Calling out Coprolalia Echolalia "Hey," "Wow," etc.[tourette13.tripod.com]
  • Complex phonic tics may fall into various categories, including echolalia (repeating words just spoken by someone else), palilalia (repeating one's own previously spoken words), klazomania (compulsive shouting), lexilalia (repeating words after reading[sciencedaily.com]
  • Patients with a complex vocal tic may repeat their own words (palilalia) or other people’s words (echolalia), and may use obscene words (coprolalia).[cedars-sinai.edu]
Involuntary Movements
  • The involuntary movements are phenomenologically identical to tics typically associated with Tourette syndrome (TS), but without the involvement of any other body part and without phonic tics or the typical TS co-morbidities, such as attention deficit[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is possible that movement disorders such as tics may contribute to the development of cervical myelopathy owing to the effects of involuntary movements on the neck.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This term refers to abnormal, repetitive involuntary movements and includes most of the childhood movement disorders, including tics, stereotypies, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, and tremor.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • A tic is a sudden, repetitive, stereotyped, nonrhythmic, involuntary movement (motor tic) or sound (phonic tic) that involves discrete groups of muscles. Tics can be invisible to the observer (e.g.; abdominal tensing or toe crunching).[sciencedaily.com]
  • Eventually, you’ll probably just collapse under the pressure and turn into a screaming ball of creaking joints. Well done! Results for How Many Of These Nervous Tics Do You Have? Whoa, You Barely Have Any Tics At All! Wow.[clickhole.com]
  • Smelling things Somersaults Stepping backwards Tearing things Throwing things Twirling in circles Walking on toes Belching Clicking Coughing Gasping Grunting Gurgling Gutteral sounds Hiccupping Hissing Honking Misc. noises Moaning Noisy breathing Puffing Screaming[tourette13.tripod.com]
  • Walkup, MD In France in 1825, 60 years before Tourette syndrome was defined as a discrete phenomenon, Marquise de Dampierre, a noblewoman who twitched and jerked uncontrollably and screamed obscenities in gatherings of high society became the first patient[nyp.org]
  • These tics developed into screams and curses, so she was sent to live in seclusion.[faculty.washington.edu]
  • Episodic outbursts of anger may include: screaming threatening behaviors stomping kicking destroying objects punching holes in walls Rage attacks, difficulty with aggression, and self-injurious behaviors are common in patients with TS.[childneurologyfoundation.org]


Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Abstract Alcohol abuse predisposes individuals to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and synergistically heightens the HCC risk in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Clinical guidelines have been developed for the treatment of TS and tics, but little is known about how young people and their parents perceive their treatment options or their desired outcomes of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Type of psychostimulant, dose, duration of treatment, recorder, and participant age did not affect risk of new onset or worsening of tics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment was administered using BTX type A injected into the thyroarytenoid muscles using electromyographic guidance or via direct laryngoscopy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ten youth (83%) in the LWT group were classified as treatment responders compared to four youth in the waitlist condition (33%). Treatment gains were maintained at one-month follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Co-occurring psychiatric disorders, age, sex, family functioning, tic characteristics, and treatment expectancy did not moderate response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Prognosis In most cases, the long-term outcome is excellent. External resources American Academy of Neurology (AAN)1080 Montreal Ave.St.[drugs.com]
  • There is now a general consensus that if a tic disorder is the only diagnosis, the prognosis is favorable.[minddisorders.com]
  • The evidence for the use of medical marijuana is currently inconclusive. [ 12 ] Prognosis Severity varies from person to person and peaks in the early teenage years.[patient.info]
  • There is no reliable way to predict which children will have a poorer prognosis. Pathophysiology The precise etiology of Tourette's syndrome is unknown. Tics are believed to result from a tripartite dysfunction in the central nervous system.[aafp.org]


  • These limitations underscore that any interpretation of behavioral output in an animal model cannot exclusively rely on the recognition of features that bear superficial resemblance with tics, but must be supported by other etiological and convergent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Youth and young adults with chronic tics and OCD may have underlying infectious/immunologic etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Piacentini is the recipient of National Institutes of Health grant awards pertaining to the etiology, assessment, and treatment of Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other child anxiety disorders. John T.[books.google.ro]
  • In terms of etiology, most co-morbidity, with the possible exception of obsessive compulsive disorder, is likely independent of the tic etiology.[childneurologyfoundation.org]
  • Etiology is not known, but tic disorders tend to be familial. In some families, they appear in a dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance. Comorbidities are common.[msdmanuals.com]


  • Abstract The Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory is used in epidemiological research to assess neurodevelopmental problems and coexisting conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this chapter functional jerks and their differential diagnoses will be discussed in terms of epidemiology, symptom characteristics, disease course, psychopathology, and supportive neurophysiologic tests. 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This paper reviews clinical, pathophysiological, epidemiological and treatment issues of tic disorders. The clinical presentation of tic disorders with simple and complex motor or vocal tics is reviewed in detail.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., large-scale population screening, epidemiological surveys, with patients who are unable to appear in person for clinical follow-up). Although the TICS is designed to be administered using the telephone, it also may be administered face-to-face.[www4.parinc.com]
  • Epidemiology [ 1, 2 ] The prevalence is 0.3-1%, The typical age of onset is 5 to 6 years. Male:female ratio is 3-4.3:1.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • RESULTS: Neither strategy can by itself provide convincing evidence that a model informatively recapitulates tic pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dopaminergic neurotransmission seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of both, tics and stuttering. We report on a patient with severe stuttering and mild facial tics which were dramatically improved by cocaine, challenging previous reports.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, a connection between copper-metabolism disorders and tics is presented, to our knowledge, for the first time in humans; further investigation is needed to better establish this connection and understand its underlying pathophysiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Disruption of GABAergic inhibition lies at the core of tic pathophysiology, but novel animal models also implicate cholinergic and histaminergic neurotransmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present case provides additional evidence supporting the role of basal ganglia circuitry in the pathophysiology of tic disorder and its comorbid states.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • […] information 1 HSK Group BV, Hambakenwetering 5b, 5233 DD 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands. j.vandegriendt@hsk.nl Abstract Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore we provide predictors for the clinical course of TS to be used in the preventive efforts, early intervention and allocation of resources improving quality of life for the children and their families.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preventing tics is better than controlling them. Giving yourself free rein in terms of your actions, thoughts and emotions can reduce tension and hyperactivation, thereby preventing tics.[iusmm.ca]
  • Can Tourette syndrome be prevented or avoided? There is nothing you can do to prevent or avoid having tics or Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome treatment There is no cure for Tourette syndrome. But there are medicines that can help.[familydoctor.org]

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