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Tinea barbae and Tinea capitis

Kerion Celsi


Presentation

  • Clinical presentation: Onychomycosis usually do not cause symptoms and patients first notice it because of cosmetic reasons. The types of Onychomycosis will present differently.[medthical.com]
  • A variety of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions, often with associated alopecia, may be present. There are three recognized patterns: ectothrix, endothrix, and favus.[fldermdoc.com]
  • Symptoms: There are three forms of this infection: endothrix - infection with typical causative agent Trichopython tonsurans, presents as patchy alopecia and broken hair shafts, its alternative name is "Black dot" tinea capitis.[skincarenet.org]
  • Tinea corporis - itching, expanding lesion present for 2 weeks since trip to Virgin Islands Tinea corporis - itching, expanding lesion present for 2 weeks since trip to Virgin Islands Large area of tinea corporis on the buttock.[5minuteconsult.com]
Chronic Infection
  • Clinical features: It can be an acute infection (sudden onset of rash) or chronic infection (extension from pre-existing rash). It usually starts off as red scaly itchy patches which may worsen and enlarge.[medthical.com]
  • References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Tinea Tinea pedis ( athlete's foot ) Tinea corporis ( ringworm ) Tinea capitis Favus Definition Chronic infection caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii Severe form of tinea capitis Epidemiology : more common in Africa, the[amboss.com]
  • The annular, scaly patches may coalesce to form large areas of chronic infection when Trichophyton rubrum is the etiologic agent.[atmph.org]
Malnutrition
  • Predisposing factors include immunosuppressant states, genetic predisposition, warm humid environments, Cushing disease and malnutrition. As it is caused by the fungus which is normally found on skin so it is not infectious or contagious.[medthical.com]
  • Overcrowding, poor hygiene and protein malnutrition favor the occurrence of this disease [ 1447 ]. Cases caused by Microsporum canis occur sporadically and are acquired from puppies and kittens [ 1045 ].[mycosesstudygroup.org]
  • . - malnutrition... - high cortisol lev… * person-to-person contact... * non-human mammal-to- person cont… Pityriasis versicolor - Caused by Malassezia furfur ... - Incubation period: Days … Cause of Pityriasis Versicolor Malassezia furfur, a lipophilic[quizlet.com]
Anemia
  • Side effects include nausea, headache, photosensitivity, elevated serum liver enzymes, raised triglycerides and uric acid levels, anemia, eosinophilia, leucocytosis and granulocytopenia and aneuploidy.[medthical.com]
Fracture
  • Some may have dry scaling, pustules with yellow crusts or black dot Tinea capitis (fracture of hair shaft leaving infected dark black stubs).[medthical.com]
Hyperkeratosis
  • In distal lateral subungual Onychomycosis, the nail will have subungual hyperkeratosis (thickening of nail plate) and onycholysis (separation of nail plate from the bed). The nail plate is usually yellow-white in color at one side of the nail.[medthical.com]
  • Onychomycosis) Location : toenails and fingernails Symptoms: Tinea unguium can present in one of the different forms, it may appear: as a white or yellow opaque streak at one side of the nail (lateral onychomycosis); as undernail scaling (subungual hyperkeratosis[skincarenet.org]
  • It may also present with a classic pattern on the dorsal surface of the foot or as chronic dry, scaly hyperkeratosis of the soles and heels.[aafp.org]
Photosensitivity
  • Side effects include nausea, headache, photosensitivity, elevated serum liver enzymes, raised triglycerides and uric acid levels, anemia, eosinophilia, leucocytosis and granulocytopenia and aneuploidy.[medthical.com]
  • This chapter discusses the acneiform eruptions, seborrheic dermatitis, erysipelas and facial cellulites, impetigo, herpes zoster, herpes simplex, tinea capitis and barbae, head lice, allergic contact dermatitis, and photosensitivity/sunburn.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • […] normal growth; however, this may take up to 9 to 12 months. 5,6 The use of the oral antifungal agents is not without side effects or significant drug interactions. 13 Common adverse effects of griseofulvin include rash, headache, nausea and vomiting, and photosensitivity[uspharmacist.com]
  • The long duration of treatment and the adverse effects of nausea, vomiting, and photosensitivity often negatively affect patient compliance.[aafp.org]
Cradle Cap
  • It is called cradle cap. It usually lasts a few months, and then goes away on its own. Besides the scalp, it can sometimes affect other parts of the body, such as the eyelids, armpits, groin, and ears.[icdlist.com]
  • Some cases of scalp ringworm do not produce obvious rings and can be confused with dandruff or cradle cap. In a few cases, the child will have a reaction to the fungus and develop a large boggy area called a kerion.[healthychildren.org]
  • The patient has no significant past medical history, but did have "cradle cap" when he was an infant. Family medical history is significant for eczema and asthma in the mother.[medbullets.com]
Skin Patch
  • It is characterized by hypopigmented or hyperpigmented flaky scaly skin patches on the body caused by a fungal infection. It commonly occurs in teenagers and young adults with average onset age of 15-24 years old.[medthical.com]
  • Tinea Versicolor (pityriasis versicolor, or Peter Elam's disease) Location : back, underarm, upper arms, chest, and neck Symptoms: Tinea versicolor presents as an eruption of discolored skin patches (dark-tan with a reddish cast), lesions have sharp borders[skincarenet.org]
Leukonychia
  • Proximal subungual Onychomycosis begins with an area of leukonychia (white nail plate) which moves distally as the nail grows. Total dystrophic Onychomycosis results in thickened, opaque, disfigured and yellow-brown nail.[medthical.com]

Workup

Fusarium
  • It can be caused by Dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum (T rubrum), T. interdigitale, Yeasts such as Candida albicans and Moulds such as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Fusarium species.[medthical.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment : It is caused by fungus so treatment involves topical antifungal (azole creams and topical selenium sulfide) or oral antifungal (ketoconazole, Itraconazole and fluconazole). Despite treatment, recurrence can occur.[medthical.com]
  • Other members of the household and pets who are infected should also receive treatment![amboss.com]
  • @article{5c68501d788d4f25bee66dd6b1281dd2, title "Superficial Fungal Infections", keywords "Antifungal treatment, Candidiasis, Superficial fungal infection, Tinea barbae, Tinea capitis, Tinea corporis, Tinea pedis, Tinea versicolor", author "Neha Kaushik[mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com]
  • Definitive antifungal treatment is necessary to cure the skin rash.[artofskinmd.com]

Prognosis

  • Outlook and prognosis Recurrence can occur if infected family cats or dogs are not tested and treated if infected. Hair loss (alopecia) is usually reversible, but may be permanent if the infection is longstanding, or with kerion or favus.[life-worldwide.org]
  • What Is The Prognosis? Ringworm infections usually respond well to treatment within a few weeks, although they can sometimes come back. Prevention Good hygiene is important for preventing many tinea infections.[healthychildren.org]
  • Prognosis Excellent with good compliance and subsequent precautions to avoid repeat infection. Prevention Good skin hygiene. Good nail hygiene. Avoiding prolonged wetting or dampness of the skin and feet.[patient.info]
  • It is seen most commonly in children aged between 5 and 10 years. [6] Mean age of onset is in patients aged 6.9-8.1 years. [7] Prognosis Tinea capitis carries a positive prognosis, with the vast majority of those treated obtaining resolution of the infection[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • […] tinea [ tin e-ah ] ringworm ; any of numerous different fungal infections of the skin; the specific type (depending on characteristic appearance, etiologic agent and site) usually is designated by a modifying term. tinea bar bae ringworm of the beard,[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Fomites... 3.… Dermatophyte infection of the ... - scalp… Tinea capitis What 2 etiological species causes Tinea… Microsporum spp...[quizlet.com]
  • The etiological agents vary from time to time and by geographical area, although they normally are zoophilic dermatophytes and in the last years also anthropophilic species.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The annular, scaly patches may coalesce to form large areas of chronic infection when Trichophyton rubrum is the etiologic agent.[atmph.org]

Epidemiology

  • Chlamydospores thick-walled spores that are formed terminally or within hypha… Tinea Barbae (3) Epidemiology of Tinea Barbae Incubation period of Tinea Barbae Pathogenesis of Tinea Barbae -Caused by: Trichophyton species. ... ...[quizlet.com]
  • References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Tinea Tinea pedis ( athlete's foot ) Tinea corporis ( ringworm ) Tinea capitis Favus Definition Chronic infection caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii Severe form of tinea capitis Epidemiology : more common in Africa, the[amboss.com]
  • […] developed world in the 1950s, but it re-emerged as a public health problem in the United Kingdom in the 1990s, with infection rates of at least 12% in school children. 1 Increased mass tourism and mobile populations may have contributed to the changing epidemiological[bmj.com]
  • Epidemiology and treatment of tinea capitis: ketoconazole vs. griseofulvin. Pediatr Infect Dis J . 1987; 6(1):46–49. 11. Ginsburg CM, Gan VN, Petruska M.[aafp.org]
  • System(s) affected: skin, exocrine Synonym(s): jock itch; ringworm Epidemiology Incidence Tinea cruris Predominant age: any age; rare in children Predominant sex: male female Tinea corporis Predominant age: all ages Predominant sex: male female Tinea[unboundmedicine.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of these disorders is similar. Sebum secretion is increased within the sebaceous follicle by androgen stimulation. Keratin accumulates in the hair follicle as well as sebum.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology Superficial fungal infection of skin/scalp Tinea cruris: Source of infection is usually the patient’s own tinea pedis, with agent being transferred from the foot to the groin via the underwear when dressing; most common causative[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Pathophysiology [ 3 ] Infection is limited to the dead layers of skin but encouraged by a damp and warm local environment.[patient.info]
  • Pathophysiology Tinea capitis is caused by fungi of species of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. Tinea capitis is the most common pediatric dermatophyte infection worldwide.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Tinea capitis is caused by fungi of species of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum . Tinea capitis is the most common pediatric dermatophyte infection worldwide.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are therefore critical in preventing scarring. In general, systemic antifungal therapy is necessary in both tinea capitis and tinea barbae. Once treated, recurrences are uncommon.[fldermdoc.com]
  • What they found adds to... [ Read Full Story ] May 10, 2019 If your provider is ordering nebulizers and the drugs used in them for their patients here are things in the documentation that will help prevent a resubmission to Medicare and ease medical coding[coder.aapc.com]
  • Prevention of Beard Fungus Although uncommon these days, tinea barbae may still be present and even endemic in certain areas of the world. A few simple measures can help with prevention. Always use a clean razor to shave the bearded area.[healthhype.com]
  • Prevention People with tinea pedis should discourage further growth of the fungus by keeping their feet as dry as possible.[aocd.org]

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