Tinea corporis is a fungal infection that affects the skin, with an appearance which is especially frequent on arms and legs.
The infection can present itself in a variety of ways. It usually begins as a pruritic, circular or oval, erythematous and scaly plaque which starts enlarging rapidly. After a while, the rash gets the appearance of a ring with raised red edges, and a clearing in the center of the affected area. The classical inflammatory elements, like scales, crusts or vesicles, on the raised edges can be observed, especially on the advancing border . Other classical features include hair loss in the infected spots, with dry and flaky stretches of skin surround them.
Entire Body System
A severe infection might cause swollen lymph glands in the neck and fever. Tinea corporis first appears on the skin as a ring with a clear centre. The ring might look red on lighter skin, or brown, purple or grey on darker skin. [raisingchildren.net.au]
Fever Selling under the skin of the affected area. Immediate medical attention is necessary at this point. Diagnosis of Tinea Corporis Clinical examination is often sufficient to reach a diagnosis. [healthhype.com]
If, despite these preventive measures, the Tinea Corporis returns or is accompanied by a fever, then do not hesitate to return to your healthcare provider. [ringworm-treatment.net]
- Recurrent Infection
CONCLUSION: The use of combination clotrimazole 1% cream/betamethasone diproprionate 0.05% cream (Lotrisone) for the treatment of tinea corporis may be associated with persistent/recurrent infection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Patients who have extensive or recurrent infections may require systemic antifungal therapy.6 Get information about the treatment of tinea unguium. [cdc.gov]
Non-prescription (over-the-counter) antifungal creams, sprays and gels contain actives such as terbinafine, ketoconazole, and clotrimazole to beat the fungus into submission.9 While recurrent infections and those more difficult to treat may require systemic [blueberrytherapeutics.com]
Prolonged use of steroids can lead to persistent and recurrent infections, longer duration of treatment regimens, and adverse effects of skin atrophy, striae, and telangiectasias. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Some find that there will be a range of other issues in the area too, from general inflammation and swelling, to pustules (pus filed spots as you might see with acne), scaling, flaking and itchy skin. [michelegreenmd.com]
Some children develop a kerion, which is a boggy, tender swelling of the scalp that can drain pus. Kerions are an allergic reaction to the fungus and may require additional treatment with an oral steroid. [gwinnettpeds.com]
Redness, swelling, pain, fever and pustules may develop. The lymph nodes in the back of the neck may increase in size. Your provider may take a swab culture from your child's scalp to confirm the diagnosis. [kenwooddermatology.com]
Early syphilis: syphilides are usually accompanied by LK swelling. Distribution pattern: frequent infestation of palms and face. Serology is conclusive! Histology is conclusive (plasma cell dermatitis). [altmeyers.org]
When to Call the Doctor Call your child’s doctor if the rash: Gets worse and shows signs of infection (pus, swelling or discharge) Does not seem to be healing after 2 weeks Has not healed completely after 4 weeks Ringworm (Tinea Corporis) (PDF) HH-I-143 [nationwidechildrens.org]
Figure 137-5 Lymphadenopathy visible in the neck of this young boy with tinea capitis. The fungal infection shows more scaling and crusting than actual hair loss. The lymphadenopathy is a reaction to the tinea and not a bacterial superinfection. [accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
The child with tinea capitis will generally have cervical and suboccipital lymphadenopathy, and the physician may need to broaden the differential diagnosis if lymphadenopathy is absent.7 However, lymphadenopathy can also occur in nonfungal scalp disease [aafp.org]
Lymphadenopathy, high IgE antibody levels, and eosinophilia are common. The disorder may be fatal. [visualdx.com]
[…] were considered in the differential including irritant contact dermatitis, psoriasis, and tinea infection. [mdedge.com]
Atopic dermatitis can also mimic dermatophyte infections. [visualdx.com]
Pityriasis rosea: Nonspecific superficial dermatitis with moderate acanthosis. Sometimes erythrocyte extravasations are seen, which are absent in tinea. No mycelia. Allergic contact dermatitis: Clinically clearly distinguishable! [altmeyers.org]
Secondary syphilis Pityriasis rosea Nummular eczema (discoid eczema, nummular dermatitis) Bacterial folliculitis The diagnosis should be confirmed by KOH preparation and culture Table 6–2.Useful topical dermatologic therapeutic agents. [accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
A scale from the periphery of the erythema was positive with direct KOH examination, and T mentagrophytes was isolated from the lesion. The erythema was successfully treated with topical application of butenafine hydrochloride. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Erythema migrans: Surface smooth, non-pruritic, marginal plaque. Serology is diagnostic. [altmeyers.org]
Important differential diagnoses for this case include erythema multiforme, Candida albicans infection, and Pityrosporum versicolor infection. [cureus.com]
Local factors such as sweating and occlusion facilitate the activity of these organisms. 2 In our case, the pathogenesis was believed to be due to the entrapment of moisture behind the patient’s watch, creating a favorable environment for fungal growth [mdedge.com]
Tine corporis also occurs with a high frequency rate when the immune system is particularly weak for previous conditions or distressful events, or after excessive sweating, since sweat creates an ideal environment for fungi proliferation in the folds [symptoma.com]
It is characterized by increased cell turnover, thickening of the stratum corneum and functional changes of sebaceous and sweat glands. All of these favor fungal proliferation. Dermatophytes may infect skin, hair and nails causing ringworm or tinea. [scielo.br]
[…] parakeratosis, in atopic eczema possible prominent eosinophilia. [altmeyers.org]
Tinea corporis may be mistaken for many other skin diseases, including eczema, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis. 1 A KOH preparation often is a helpful tool in confirming the diagnosis and should be performed when a dermatophyte infection is suspected [mdedge.com]
What is discoid eczema? Discoid eczema is a common type of eczema/dermatitis defined by scattered, well-defined, coin-shaped and coin-sized plaques of eczema. Discoid eczema is also called nummular dermatitis. [dermnetnz.org]
(discoid eczema, nummular dermatitis) Bacterial folliculitis The diagnosis should be confirmed by KOH preparation and culture Table 6–2.Useful topical dermatologic therapeutic agents. [accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
We interpreted these bacterial superinfections as the clinical result of scratching due to pruritus. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, infections without pruritus or classic features are seen. Disseminated tinea corporis may be seen in patients with immunosuppression, diabetes, Cushing syndrome, malignancy, and old age. [visualdx.com]
The lesion showed clinical characteristics that were suggestive of a dermatophyte infection but was somewhat atypical in appearance, as it lacked central clearing. [mdedge.com]
Because the cutaneous manifestations of RPD may be misinterpreted clinically as acute radiation-induced dermatitis, this condition may be more prevalent than the paucity of published reports suggests. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] dermatitis from the metal on the back of the watch was suspected, many modern wrist watches are made with stainless steel rather than nickel, which is a common contact allergen; therefore, other diagnoses were considered in the differential including irritant [mdedge.com]
Mild and transient irritation was reported in four patients. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Avoid excess groin skin irritation by wearing 100% cotton underwear. Avoid fabric softeners, bleaches, or harsh laundry detergents. [medicinenet.com]
Tinea and dermatophyte infections should not be confused with a different type of fungal infection, Candidiasis. This particular fungal infection is caused by a type of yeast (Candida). [michelegreenmd.com]
It is often confused with a large boil or carbuncle or a tumour such as a skin cancer. Majocchi granuloma describes tinea corporis involving the hair follicles resulting in pustules and nodules. [dermnetnz.org]
There are 4 main methodologies to diagnose tinea corporis. The first one is the microscopic examination of superficial samples taken from the skin after scraping. Although simple, this method might take several days to complete, because of the slow fungal growth rate, and the case negative results is not sufficient to rule out the presence of infections. Therefore, this method must usually be integrated with more specific ones.
The second diagnostic methodology for the tinea corporis diagnosis is the potassium hydroxide examination (KOH). Potassium hydroxide dissolves the keratin of the epidermal tissue, leaving intact the fungal elements such as the branching hyphane, which is deeply embedded among the epithelial cells. The samples for this clinical procedure must be taken on the borders of the tinea ring, where the fungal yield is highest. The method is effective at detecting fungal elements but not very specific.
Fungal culture, instead, is very specific as procedure, and can be used in addition to potassium hydroxide examination to identify the fungal species responsible for the infection. The culture can grow on several substrata. Sabouraud agar contains neopeptone, polypeptone and glucose but no antibiotics, which means it can easily allow fungal overgrowth. Mycosel, instead, is very similar to sabouraud agar, but contains antibiotics too and can prevent complications due to overgrowth and infections by other microorganisms. Dermatophyte test medium (DTM) is ideal for dermatophyte, because apart from nutrient agar it also contains antibacterial and antifungal agents which prevent other microorganisms from growing, thus allowing a great level of specificity. Whatever is the substratum chosen, the growth must be monitored for at least 2 weeks.
If the above mentioned methodologies are inconclusive to identify the presence of dermatophytes, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) can be employed to amplify the fungal DNA and identify the species of fungus concerned by studying its nucleic acid sequence .
"Tinea corporis due to Microsporum audouinii in a case of diabetes mellitus and psoriasis/Diabetes mellitus ve psoriasisli bir olguda microsporum audouinii'ye bagli gelisen tinea korporis." Turkish Journal of Dermatology, 2009, p. 47+. [go.gale.com]
Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Trichophyton rubrum T. mentagrophytes T. tonsurans T. violaceum (Africa, India) Microsporum canis Epidermophyton floccosum [Fig 1] Common cause of ringworm (tinia corporis), jock itch (tinea cruris) and athlete’s foot (tinea pedis). [hopkinsguides.com]
[…] infection of the nonhairy skin of the body, most prevalent in hot, humid climates and usually caused by species of Trichophyton or Microsporum. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Keywords: India, Microsporum ferrugineum, tinea corporis How to cite this article: Raina D, Gupta P, Khanduri A. A First case of Microsporum ferrugineum causing tinea corporis in Uttarakhand. [atmph.org]
- Trichophyton Rubrum
Consider tinea corporis Tinea corporis, also known by the misnomer “ringworm,” is one of many superficial mycotic infections caused by dermatophytes (such as Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum) that invade keratinized [visualdx.com]
Causes of Tinea Corporis The common fungal species responsible for tinea corporis includes : Trichophyton rubrum Trichophyton verrucosum Trichophyton mentagrophytes Microsporum canis There are several other dermatophytes that may also be responsible for [healthhype.com]
In Europe, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum are the most common. See also Dermatophytes. Tinea corporis gladiatores is mostly caused by T. tonsurans. [altmeyers.org]
Trichophyton rubrum was the aetiological agent. So far, only a single report has been made on tinea corporis purpurica. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Trichophyton Mentagrophytes
L 31611164 2019 12 A unique multidrug-resistant clonal Trichophyton population distinct from Trichophyton mentagrophytes/Trichophyton interdigitale complex causing an ongoing alarming dermatophytosis outbreak in India: Genomic insights and resistance [malacards.org]
Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the dermatophyte species most commonly reported in cases of guinea pig-associated dermatophytosis (or guinea pig fungus) a condition that more often affects children than adults. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
In a larger Persian study, the pathogen frequency was detected as follows: Trichophyton verrucosum (40.6%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (17.6%), Trichophyton violaceum (12%). [altmeyers.org]
- Tinea corporis responds well to daily application of topical antifungals. These include clotrimazole (twice daily), econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and luicoazole. Nystatin is only effective against candida infections and ineffective against dermatophyte infections.
- Oral medication may have to be used in extensive infections like antifungals such as fluconazole or itraconazole.
- Topical steroids may exacerbate tinea corporis and should be avoided. Combination topical creams containing steroids should be avoided as they can mask the inflammatory response and not treat the fungal infection leading to a condition known as tinea incognito. Combination products are also more expensive   .
Tinea corporis appears moderately contagious and very uncomfortable. As children are frequently affected by this infection, they should be educated on preventive measures , such as avoiding tight clothes and not sharing personal items. If there are pets in the house, they should be checked for the presence of tinea, especially when on the body of the animals signs of tinea infection can be seen, such as hair loss in patches and excessive scratching .
In any case, the prognosis of tinea corporis is excellent, with the 70 to 100% of the affected individuals which recover easily after treatment with antifungal medications, provided that the immune system is intact .
As previously said, the fungi responsible for tinea corporis are called dermatophytes, from the word “dermatos”, which means “skin”, and “phyte” , which means “plant”. In other words, fungi that normally live on the skin , where they get nutrients from keratinized materials . They form a group of around 40 anamorphic species, which produce spores in asexual reproductive cycles. They normally occur in pets, and this is why they are frequently transmitted through animal-to-human transmission. Frequent is also the transmission by person-to-person contact  or from personal items recently touched by affected individuals. The persons who are commonly affected by this infection are children and athletes.
The risk of getting tinea corporis is increased in various situations, like being in crowded and humid conditions, wearing tight clothes or playing sports which require a great deal of physical contact. Tine corporis also occurs with a high frequency rate when the immune system is particularly weak for previous conditions or distressful events, or after excessive sweating, since sweat creates an ideal environment for fungi proliferation in the folds and grooves of the skin.
Tinea corporis is particularly common in hot and humid climates, with the ideal climatic conditions for fungi proliferation. Among the agents causing this infection, some of them appear to be more frequent than others. For example, Trichophyton rubrum is responsible for 47% of tinea corporis cases worldwide  , whereas Microspores canis for the 14%. According to a 5-year study conducted in Kuwait, the group of most commonly occurring agents also includes Trichophyton mentagrophytes (39%), Epidermophyton floccosum (6.2%), Trichophyton violaceum (2.4%), and Trichophyton verrucosum (0.4%) .
No significant mortality or morbidity has ever been found for tinea corporis, although it’s well known to greatly affect the quality of life. The infection appears to affect females and males in equal measure, even though its frequency increases in women of childbearing age who are often in contact with affected children. Furthermore, tinea corporis interests all age groups, but its prevalence reaches the highest levels in preadolescences and adolescences, who frequently touch animals and objects infected.
Dermatophytes tend to invade the cornified layers of the skin, nail and hair, where they find the perfect conditions for proliferation. After spreading on the superficial layers, dermatophytes then begin to invade the deeper layers through the action of keratinases, proteolytic enzymes which break the disulfide bonds in keratin-containing substrata. In any case, the invasion remains limited to epidermis, because the fungi are blocked and neutralized by the defense mechanisms found in deeper strata, like serum inhibitor factors or polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The period of incubation usually lasts between 1 to 3 weeks, after which the infection begins to spread following a centrifugal pattern of invasion. The host body fights the invasion through cell-mediated immunity, but certain organisms turn out to be hard to destroy. Particularly famous is the case of Trichophyton rubrum, exceptionally resistant to eradication due to its cell wall which contains mannan, a polymer of mannose that is particularly effective at inhibiting cell-mediated immunity, hindering keratinocytes proliferation and enhancing resistance against skin’s defense systems .
The fungi responsible for tinea corporis prefer warm and moist environments, as these are ideal for fungal development and growth. Thus, avoiding warm and moist conditions is paramount in tinea corporis prevention. This means first of all keeping the skin dry and avoiding tight clothing, which foster sweating in the folds and grooves of the skin, where the perfect conditions for fungi growth might occur. Other major preventive measures include frequently washing hands, avoiding sports which require a great deal of physical contact, and averting the handling of infectious objects and the sharing of personal items.
Tinea corporis is a superficial dermatophyte infection which presents itself with inflammatory or noninflammatory lesions. The organisms responsible for its occurrence belong to the genera of trichophyton, microsporum, and epidermophyton, collectively known as dermatophytes, which according to their favorite host or source can be defined as anthropophilic, if they mostly infect humans, zoophile, if they mostly infect animals, and geophile, if they tend to be found in soil. Tinea corporis is also known with various other names, like ringworm , tinea circinata  or tinea glabrosa .
Tinea corporis is a fungal infection that affects the skin, with an appearance which is especially frequent on arms and legs. The organisms responsible for the occurrence of this infection belong to the genera of trichophyton, microsporum, and epidermophyton, collectively called as dermatophytes, which might infect both animals and humans.
Tinea corporis is particular frequent in hot and humid climates, with the ideal climatological conditions for fungi proliferation. The condition begins as a small, red, itchy area of skin which slowly becomes ring-shaped, with a raised, sometimes scaly edge and a clearer center.
The classical treatment for tinea corporis includes the use of topical antifungals in the milder cases and oral medications in the more severe cases. The main measures for preventing tinea corporis are: keeping the skin dry, not wearing tight clothing, frequently washing hands, avoiding sports which require a great deal of physical contact, and averting the handling of infectious objects and the sharing of personal items.
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