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Tinea Imbricata

Tinea imbricata is a dermatologic disease caused by the fungus Trichophyton concentricum. It is of a chronic nature and proven to be endemic in regions of the Pacific where it is known by the name ''bakua".


Presentation

Tinea imbricata (TI) is a mycosis affecting the outermost layer of the skin and hair. It is endemic in tropical parts such as the Pacific countries and Brazil due to the warm and humid climate which complements the requirements of life for the causative organism Trichophyton concentricum [1]. Moreover, this infection is more common in people living in poverty and unhygienic conditions. The onset of TI is in the youth and has a recurrent nature that affects the patient despite treatment. Both genders are affected equally, and the percentage of infected residents in endemic regions is about 10 - 20% [2]. Therefore it is beneficial to inquire about previous travels to these regions or contact with potential carriers of this infection.

The mycosis produces characteristic concentric, polycyclic, squamous patterns on the skin that overlap or imbricate, contributing to the characteristic name. It does not cause inflammation and has a tendency to develop a central clearing [3]. Lesions of TI can present with or without erythema and/or bothersome pruritus. Sites most frequently affected are the torso and extremities, nevertheless, the infection can spread to any location of the body [2]. Additionally, tinea imbricata is known to originate in the facial epidermis of children and successively spread to parts of the body previously described [4]. Patients may have a family history of this infection, as it is presumed that a defective immunologic response to Trichophyton concentricum antigens is of genetic origin [5]. Also, transmission of the fungi is rather effortless and involves physical contact with the infected and contact with surfaces containing the organism.

Patients may be erroneously prescribed a topical corticosteroid to treat a suspected eczema, but this can change the dynamics of mycosis due to the development of tinea incognito [6].

Chronic Infection
  • Adoptive transfer of immunity to dermatophyte infection by lymphoid cells from donors with acute or chronic infections. Immunology 53:465–472, 1984. PubMed Google Scholar 8. Castellani A: Further researches on the hyphomycetes of tinea imbricata.[link.springer.com]
Wound Infection
  • infection. ( 6593962 ) Barss P. 1983 29 Jorge Lobo's disease (keloidal blastomycosis) and tinea imbricata in Indians from the Xingu National Park, Central Brazil. ( 7071925 ) Baruzzi R.G....Michalany N.S. 1982 30 Tinea imbricata in New Zealanders. ([malacards.org]
  • infection. ( 6593962 ) Barss P 1983 28 Immune responses of patients with tinea imbricata. ( 6849824 ) Hay RJ...Macnamara K 1983 29 Jorge Lobo's disease (keloidal blastomycosis) and tinea imbricata in Indians from the Xingu National Park, Central Brazil[malacards.org]
Anemia
  • Patients with known liver disease, kidney dysfunction, hematologic problems (e.g. anemia) 4. Patients with or suspected allergy to Senna alata extract The participation of the subjects were completely voluntary.[ichgcp.net]
Vietnamese
  • Русский (Russian) ಕನ್ನಡ (Kannada) 한국어 (Korean) עברית (Hebrew) Український (Ukrainian) اردو (Urdu) Magyar (Hungarian) मानक हिन्दी (Hindi) Indonesia (Indonesian) Italiano (Italian) தமிழ் (Tamil) Türkçe (Turkish) తెలుగు (Telugu) ภาษาไทย (Thai) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese[synonyms.net]
Scaly Rash
  • An 18-year-old woman presented with a concentric, scaly rash on her arms, trunk, and legs that involved approximately 70% of the body-surface area. Her brother had similar skin findings.[doi.org]
  • An 18-year-old Fijian woman presented with a 3-year history of a concentric, scaly rash on her shoulders; the rash was also present on her trunk, arms, and legs (not shown).[nejm.org]
Photosensitivity
  • Fully updated with new developments and treatments, this sixth edition provides expanded coverage of psoriasis, eczema, inflammatory dermatoses and drug photosensitivity.[books.google.de]
  • Home About Categories Skin Infections Bacterial Infections Viral Infections Fungal Infections Parasitic Infestations Eczema Psoriasis Acne and Rosacea Photosensitive Dermatoses Pigmentary Disorders Connective Tissue Disorders Skin Tumours Metabolic Disorders[dermatologyoasis.net]
Brittle Hair
  • Generally it is characterized by one or more small, round, elevated patches, scaling of the scalp, and dry and brittle hair. tinea cor poris a fungal infection of the glabrous (smooth) skin, usually due to species of Microsporum or Trichophyton. tinea[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Excoriation
  • Areas of lichenification develop after chronic excoriation. As this infection is superficial, patients do not have accompanying constitutional symptoms.[visualdx.com]
  • Areas of lichenification develop after chronic excoriation. As this infection is superficial, patients do not have accompanying constitutional symptoms. Diagnosis: The doctor will diagnose the condition by looking at the rash.[medigoo.com]
Hyperpigmentation
  • Commonly involve hair bearing areas such as scalp, forehead, the beard presternal or interscapular areas. [1],[2],[3] Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Plaques show erythema, scaling, scarring and atrophy, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation and peripheral zone of hyperpigmentation[explainmedicine.com]
Withdrawn
  • (Table 5) Participants with mild to severe adverse drug effects were to be withdrawn from the study and provided appropriate management by the investigators.[ichgcp.net]
Neglect
  • Steer, Opportunities for Integrated Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases That Affect the Skin, Trends in Parasitology, 32, 11, (843), (2016).[doi.org]

Workup

To establish a diagnosis of tinea imbricata, a clinical evaluation, and observation of the classical appearance due to this infection (described in the "Presentation'' section) is usually sufficient. Microbiological culture and other tests for objective confirmation are seldom necessary but can be informative in situations where there is doubt or when a specific genus of fungi is required to be identified [7].

Mycological investigations are good tools for identifying the causative agent of the infection. A culture has to be grown in a specific medium i.e. Sabouraud dextrose agar medium with the addition of chloramphenicol, as well as cycloheximide. Under microscopic examination, a characteristic morphological structure of Trichophyton concentricum can be seen. The structural differences include short hyphae with septae and a presence of chlamydospores [8].

Biopsies can be performed for a histopathological examination. A finding confirming a T. concentricum infection includes hyphae invasion into the stratum corneum layer of the skin [8].

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be performed with amplification of the ITS1-ITS2 region [7].

Treatment

  • Anecdotal reports about its efficacy as a treatment for tinea imbricata exist and need to be further validated.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • A panel of two dermatologists who had prior clinical experience with tinea imbricata assessed the treatment response based on the digital photographs taken at the end of the treatment period. Post-treatment VAS scores were recorded.[ichgcp.net]
  • BACKGROUND: Griseofulvin has been the mainstay of treatment for tinea imbricata (TI) for decades; however, there have been few reports of efficacy of newer antifungals in the treatment of this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Spontaneous improvement is unusual and relapse after apparently successful treatment is common.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studies on TI in Indonesia have been done since the 1960s,encompassing the epidemiology, clinical features, and efficacy of antifungal treatment. Griseofulvin is still the mainstay treatment, but relapse rates are high.[kci.go.kr]

Prognosis

  • LC often has rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. The mean interval between diagnosis of LC and death was reported as 3.8 and 4.8 months respectively in different studies [ 13 , 14 ]. The interval time was 2 months for our patient.[clinical-pediatrics-dermatology.imedpub.com]
  • Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis We had established that the etiologic agent was M. gypseum based on morphologic features, biochemical test results and molecular methods.[academic.oup.com]

Etiology

  • […] tinea [ tin e-ah ] ringworm ; any of numerous different fungal infections of the skin; the specific type (depending on characteristic appearance, etiologic agent and site) usually is designated by a modifying term. tinea bar bae ringworm of the beard,[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Moreover, the new or previously very sporadic etiologic agents causing kerion have been recently observed in Croatia, such as T. tonsurans, mostly in wrestlers, so far.[aspergillus.org.uk]
  • Etiology and Pathology—The cause of the malady, which is of contagious nature, is a vegetable parasite closely similar to the tricho- phyton.[doctortreatments.com]

Epidemiology

  • RECENT FINDINGS: This review covers the most interesting aspects of the infrequent disease tinea imbricata, including the historical background, the epidemiologic aspects, highlighting the genetic and racial patterns of susceptibility to the acquisition[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In a concise and user-friendly format, it offers authoritative coverage of epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathology, laboratory tests, management, and prevention for both common and rare conditions .[books.google.ro]
  • In a concise and user-friendly format, it offers authoritative coverage of epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathology, laboratory tests, management, and prevention for both common and rare conditions.[books.google.com]
  • This review covers the most interesting aspects of the infrequent disease tinea imbricata, including the historical background, the epidemiologic aspects, highlighting the genetic and racial patterns of susceptibility to the acquisition of the disease[pdfs.journals.lww.com]
  • This review covers the most interesting aspects of the infrequent disease tinea imbricata , including the historical background, the epidemiologic aspects, highlighting the genetic and racial patterns of susceptibility to the acquisition of the disease[journals.lww.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Case Overview Tinea imbricata Member Rated 0 Patient case no. 10754 Date added 07 April 2010 Patient details Age Adult Location Iraq Localisation Upper limbs / upper arms Description Primary Lesions Plaque / erythemato-squamous Plaque Pathophysiology[dermquest.com]
  • Stefano Veraldi*, Paolo Pontini and Gianluca Nazzaro Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantations, University of Milan, I.R.C.C.S. Foundation, Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, IT-20122 Milan, Italy.[medicaljournals.se]

Prevention

  • […] and prevent superficial bacterial and fungal infections," Burns said.[livescience.com]
  • The therapeutic options are still griseofulvin and nowadays terbinafine, but the access to the treatments in the endemic zones and the changes in habits of the affected population make control and prevention of the disease difficult.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was treated with griseofulvin to clear the active infection and with topical, dilute vinegar soaks to prevent recurrence. Unfortunately, follow-up of the patient was not possible owing to her remote location.[nejm.org]

References

Article

  1. Hay RJ, Ashbee HR. Superficial mycoses. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, ed. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 8th ed. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010;36.5–36.68.
  2. Mason D, Marks M. Bakua: Tinea Imbricata in the Solomon Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(5):883.
  3. Narayanasetty NK, Pai VV, Athanikar SB. Annular Lesions in Dermatology. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(2):157.
  4. Bonifaz A, Vázquez-González D. Tinea imbricata in the Americas. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:106–111.
  5. Bonifaz A, Archer-Dubon C, Saúl A. Tinea imbricata or Tokelau. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:506–510.
  6. Dias MFRG, Quaresma-Santos MVP, Bernardes-Filho F, Amorim AG da F, Schechtman RC, Azulay DR. Update on therapy for superficial mycoses: review article part I. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(5):764-774.
  7. Esposto MC, Lazzarini C, Prigitano A, Olivi A, Monti M, Tortorano AM. Trichophyton concentricum in skin lesions in children from the Salomon Islands. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Oct;150(5):491-4.
  8. Veraldi S, Pontini P, Nazzaro G. A Case of Tinea Imbricata in an Italian Woman. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015 Feb;95(2):235-7.

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Last updated: 2019-06-28 12:22