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Toxic Effect of Benzene


Presentation

  • These mechanisms are complex, affecting not only the DNA, but also the complex intercellular interactions present in the bone marrow microenvironment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Increased numbers of reticulocytes were noted in all workers independently of service time whereas other hematological alterations presented above were marked only in the subgroup of workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene through 55 to 122 months[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Presently, one cannot advise the measurement of IL-1 alpha production for biological effect monitoring of workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cigarette smoke is also responsible for most of the benzene present in indoor environments. Smokers and non-smokers alike are exposed to benzene when they breathe in secondhand smoke.[verywellmind.com]
  • Gamma benzene hexachloride is present in several products sold under a number of trade names.[jamanetwork.com]
Denial

Workup

Erythrocytes Increased
  • The first hematological changes noted in the workers studied consisted of diminishing the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Water from the Tarawa Terrace Treatment Plant was contaminated by PCE (perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene).[atsdr.cdc.gov]
  • Intensive treatment is necessary to prevent death. Inhalation Injuries Benzene irritates the linings of the airways. Exposure to low concentration benzene vapors can cause inflammation of the nasal airways and throat.[livestrong.com]
  • How well someone does depends on how much benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery. Benzene is very poisonous. Poisoning can cause rapid death.[medlineplus.gov]

Prognosis

  • ., "[Blood platelets in the diagnosis and prognosis of benzol poisoning]," Bull. Soc. Med. Du Travail de Lyon (Feb. 15, 1952); Canci, A., ["Effect of Adenine on Thrombopenia Induced by Experimental Benzene Poisoning"], Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol.[toxictorts.com]

Etiology

  • The acceptance of benzene as an etiological agent in aplastic anemia in large measure derives from our ability to reproduce the disease in most animals treated with sufficiently high doses of benzene over the necessary time period.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiologic literature shows that benzene is the chemical most strongly associated with CML.[amlbenzene.net]
  • ., "An Epidemiologic Study of Early Biologic Effects of Benzene in Chinese Workers," Environ. Health Perspect. 104(Suppl. 6): 1365-1370 (1996); Rothman, N., et al., "Hematotoxicity Among Chinese Workers Heavily Exposed to Benzene," Amer. J. Ind.[toxictorts.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has information about how you can protect yourself and what to do if you are exposed. Selected References: International Agency for Research on Cancer.[cancer.gov]
  • Regulations are now in place in the U.S. to control benzene exposure in the workplace and prevent occupationally induced leukemias.[livestrong.com]
  • Inhalation: Take precautions to prevent a fire (e.g. remove sources of ignition). Take precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Move victim to fresh air.[ccohs.ca]
  • Receive information and training (in a language and vocabulary the worker understands) about workplace hazards, methods to prevent them, and the OSHA standards that apply to their workplace. Review records of work-related injuries and illnesses.[osha.gov]
  • Preventing exposure of the general community to benzene is very difficult as it is released into the air from many sources including car exhaust, petrol, smoke from domestic woodfires, bushfires and from industry.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]

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