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Toxic Effect of Chlorine Gas


Presentation

  • Patients were placed in control and treatment groups in a sequential odd-even fashion based on their order of presentation. Treatment of all patients included corticosteroids and nebulized short-acting beta2-agonists.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether (or not) long term occupational exposure to low (sub-TLV levels) atmospheric concentrations of chlorine gas was associated with any significant decrements in the parameters of pulmonary[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many impurities in the water require a large amount of chlorine to react with all the impurities present. The chlorine added must first react with all the impurities in the water before a chlorine residual is present.[safewater.org]
  • Disinfecting Water : Chlorine is often present in chemicals used to kill bacteria in drinking water and swimming pools. Chlorine is very effect against e coli bacteria.[ivyroses.com]
  • There should not be any inorganic chlorine present in the body.[heavymetalstest.com]
Pain
  • Chest pain. Irritation to the throat, nose, and eyes. Wheezing. Pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • […] in the throat Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM Blood in the stool Burns of the food pipe (esophagus) Severe abdominal pain Vomiting Vomiting blood HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure[medlineplus.gov]
  • [Medscape] High-level chlorine (20%, 30 ppm) acute exposure symptoms [Medscape]: Dyspnea: Upper airway swelling and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • Frequent and painful coughing occurs and some frothy sputum is brought up.[vlib.us]
  • When the gas arrived at the Allied front-trenches soldiers began to complain about pains in the chests and a burning sensation in their throats.[spartacus-educational.com]
Physician
  • If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician. Top[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • Updated by: Jesse Borke, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Attending Physician at FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Chlorine exposure: a challenge to the physician. Am Fam Physician. 1981 Jan. 23(1):135-8. Martinez TT, Long C. Explosion risk from swimming pool chlorinators and review of chlorine toxicity. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1995. 33(4):349-54.[prehospitalpush.com]
  • Two trained physicians specialised in respiratory medicine worked with the help of two nurses, alternating daily in the clinic.[oem.bmj.com]
  • Feel free to consult a physician on that somewhat rhetorical question. Consider some well-known attributes of chlorine. Let's say, "the dark side" of the saviour.[pure-earth.com]
Inflammation
  • Oxygen and drugs to open the airways and decrease inflammation are given.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Chlorine can be absorbed through the skin, resulting in pain, inflammation, swelling, and blistering. Hydrochloric acid also causes burns to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, mouth, and lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • Higher chlorine exposure may also lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, an inflammation of the lungs from breathing in chemical fumes, and even death.[foreffectivegov.org]
  • People develop bronchitis, or inflammation of the airways. In some, but not in all people, the bronchitis induces asthma, said Dr.[scientificamerican.com]
  • In all but the mildest cases the asphyxial stage is followed by a stage in which acute inflammation with profuse exudation of lymph occurs as a result of the irritant action of the gas on the bronchial mucous membrane and the alveoli.[vlib.us]
Falling
  • Extreme cyanosis with a full pulse is greatly relieved by bleeding: breathing becomes easier, headache is relieved, and the patient falls into a refreshing sleep.[vlib.us]
  • Bubble chlorine through humic and fumic acids common to surface water supplies and you produce the "fishy" or "musty" odors and tastes so common in the spring and fall, when the lake "turns-over."[pure-earth.com]
  • And that has the odd consequence that the demand for chlorine rises and falls in line with property booms and busts. And because the supply of sodium is inextricably tied to that of chlorine, it has an even odder consequence.[bbc.co.uk]
  • Whenever they saw a soldier whom the fumes had not quite killed they snatched away his rifle and advised him to lie down "to die better". (5) Captain Hugh Pollard, The Memoirs of a VC (1932) Dusk was falling when from the German trenches in front of the[spartacus-educational.com]
  • […] and expiratory wheezes and crackles in the base of the lungs. 7 After acute exposure to chlorine from two separate accidents in community pools in Pennsylvania in 1996, all 13 children involved showed not only classic signs and symptoms, but also a fall[oem.bmj.com]
Weakness
  • […] chlorine (20%, 30 ppm) acute exposure symptoms [Medscape]: Dyspnea: Upper airway swelling and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal burning Muscle weakness[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • After recovery from the bronchitis and pneumonia the patient remains weak and exhausted for a considerable time.[vlib.us]
  • Showering with unfiltered water may also cause the following symptoms: Sneezing Tightness in chest Weak cough Mild sore throat Increased dryness in throat Irritation in nasal passages Apart from monitoring the chlorine content in pools, invest in carbon[filterwater.com]
  • Although the Germans succeeded in seizing control of a significant portion of the salient the Allies nevertheless managed to re-form a continuous line, though in parts it remained dangerously weak.[firstworldwar.com]
Cough
  • Mouth and Throat Irritant Chlorine gas exposure within the mouth and throat causes coughing and throat and mouth dryness. Breathing difficulty and chronic coughing will only result at high concentrations of chlorine gas.[sciencing.com]
  • Exposure to chloramine gases can cause the following symptoms: Coughing. Nausea. Shortness of breath. Watery eyes. Chest pain. Irritation to the throat, nose, and eyes. Wheezing. Pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • Acute Effects of Chlorine Exposure on the Respiratory Tract of Humans [CDC data] Concentration (ppm) Effects 0.2–3.5 Odor detection 1–3 Mild mucous membrane irritation tolerated up to 1 hour 5–15 Moderate irritation 30 Immediate chest pain, dyspnea, cough[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • In addition, they often cause cough and blood in the sputum (hemoptysis). Retching and shortness of breath also are common.[merckmanuals.com]
  • At 30 ppm and beyond, there is immediate chest pain, shortness of breath, and cough. At approximately 40–60 ppm, a toxic pneumonitis and/or acute pulmonary edema can develop....[en.wikipedia.org]
Dyspnea
  • The most common symptoms were dyspnea (82%) and chest tightness (82%). Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Compared to the placebo group, the NSB group had significantly higher FEV1 values at 120 and 240 min (p .05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • [Medscape] High-level chlorine (20%, 30 ppm) acute exposure symptoms [Medscape]: Dyspnea: Upper airway swelling and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • Commonly, exposure will result in local irritation of the respiratory tract, resulting in bronchospasm, cough, and dyspnea. If cellular damage is significant enough, pulmonary edema and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) can result.[prehospitalpush.com]
Sneezing
  • Showering with unfiltered water may also cause the following symptoms: Sneezing Tightness in chest Weak cough Mild sore throat Increased dryness in throat Irritation in nasal passages Apart from monitoring the chlorine content in pools, invest in carbon[filterwater.com]
  • There will generally be sneezing, nose irritation, burning sensation, and throat irritation. There may also be skin irritation or chemical burns and eye irritation or conjunctivitis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Initial German Experiments In the capture of Neuve Chapelle in October 1914 the German army fired shells at the French which contained a chemical irritant whose result was to induce a violent fit of sneezing.[firstworldwar.com]
Painful Cough
  • , cough, eye irritation, increased heartbeat, rapid breathing, and death.[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • Frequent and painful coughing occurs and some frothy sputum is brought up.[vlib.us]
Hemoptysis
  • In addition, they often cause cough and blood in the sputum (hemoptysis). Retching and shortness of breath also are common.[merckmanuals.com]
Vomiting
  • Headache, vomiting and fainting occur after a long exposure at high concentrations. Skin Irritant Skin exposed to chlorine gas can become frostbitten. The gas fuses into the skin cells and under the epidermal layer.[sciencing.com]
  • Vomiting blood HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath Irritation Seek medical help right away.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Don’t try to induce vomiting unless instructed by poison control or a medical professional. If you get chlorine on your skin, immediately wash it with soap and water.[healthline.com]
  • Drinking levels over 4 ppm can cause throat and stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting. By testing lung function and examining your skin and teeth, your doctor can evaluate the health effects of chlorine exposure.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • Around 150 people needed hospital treatment for burning eyes, vomiting and sore throats after the mystery gas came ashore near Beachy Head on Sunday afternoon.[telegraph.co.uk]
Choking
  • Chlorine is a poisonous, greenish-yellow gas described as having a choking odor. It is a very corrosive, hazardous chemical.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • Phosgene as a weapon was more potent than chlorine in that while the latter was potentially deadly it caused the victim to violently cough and choke.[firstworldwar.com]
  • At room temperature, it is a greenish-yellow gas with a choking smell, which is denser than air.[newsweek.com]
  • […] that long-term exposure to chlorinated pools can cause symptoms of asthma in swimmers. [ 2 ] This can affect athletes who were previously healthy, especially adolescents. [ 3 ] Chlorine is even toxic enough to be a chemical weapon and categorized as a “choking[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • The hope was that the choking fumes would cause panic and chaos. French troops would simply run away and a gap would be left wide open for German troops, wearing gas masks, to advance and gain huge amounts of ground.[theguardian.com]
Nausea
  • Nausea. Shortness of breath. Watery eyes. Chest pain. Irritation to the throat, nose, and eyes. Wheezing. Pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • Drinking levels over 4 ppm can cause throat and stomach irritation, nausea and vomiting. By testing lung function and examining your skin and teeth, your doctor can evaluate the health effects of chlorine exposure.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • [Medscape] High-level chlorine (20%, 30 ppm) acute exposure symptoms [Medscape]: Dyspnea: Upper airway swelling and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) that may be delayed for a few hours Nausea and vomiting Watery eyes Wheezing Showing these signs or symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to chlorine.[emergency.cdc.gov]
  • A person with chlorine gas poisoning may also have nausea, vomiting, or a headache. [1] [2] [3] Chronic exposure to relatively low levels of chlorine gas may cause pulmonary problems like acute wheezing attacks, chronic cough with phlegm, and asthma.[en.wikipedia.org]
Chest Pain
  • Chest pain. Irritation to the throat, nose, and eyes. Wheezing. Pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • [Medscape] High-level chlorine (20%, 30 ppm) acute exposure symptoms [Medscape]: Dyspnea: Upper airway swelling and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • Immediately or shortly after exposure to 30 ppm or more of chlorine gas, a person may have: Chest pain Vomiting Coughing Difficulty breathing Excess fluid in their lungs Exposure to 430 ppm in air for 30 minutes will cause death.[dhs.wisconsin.gov]
  • pains, cough, eye irritation, increased heartbeat, rapid breathing, and death.[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • At 30 ppm and beyond, there is immediate chest pain, shortness of breath, and cough. At approximately 40–60 ppm, a toxic pneumonitis and/or acute pulmonary edema can develop....[en.wikipedia.org]
Cyanosis
  • Of interest is the treatment of cyanosis by bleeding.[vlib.us]
  • […] developed classic early signs and symptoms of acute exposure. 3 Two children, after brief exposure to fumes from solid chlorine products used in residential pools in Nebraska in 1986, developed lethargy, productive cough, severe hypoxaemia, tachypnoea, cyanosis[oem.bmj.com]
Ulcer
  • […] and obstruction may occur Violent cough Nausea and vomiting (with the smell of chlorine in emesis) Lightheadedness Headache Chest pain or retrosternal burning Muscle weakness Abdominal discomfort Dermatitis (with liquid exposure): Corneal burns and ulcerations[drmz13.wordpress.com]
  • Higher exposures may result in severe chemical burns or ulcerations.[slideshare.net]

Treatment

  • Patients were placed in control and treatment groups in a sequential odd-even fashion based on their order of presentation. Treatment of all patients included corticosteroids and nebulized short-acting beta2-agonists.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison. If you suspect someone has been poisoned, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 right away.[icdlist.com]
  • The effect of the differences in treatment between the two siblings cannot be definitely assessed in this single situation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chlorination may also be done as the final step in the treatment process, which is when it is usually done in most treatment plants.[safewater.org]
  • In addition, nearly 125 water treatment plants have switched from chlorine gas to liquid bleach or ultraviolet treatments, according to a 2008 Center for American Progress report.[foreffectivegov.org]

Prognosis

  • Chapter X describes the effects of chlorine gas poisoning, the patient's symptoms, prognosis and the treatment advocated in 1916. Of interest is the treatment of cyanosis by bleeding.[vlib.us]

Epidemiology

  • Smoking or pre-existing lung conditions like asthma appear to increase the risk of long term complications. [1] Epidemiology [ edit ] In 2014, the American Association of Poison Control Centers reported that about 6000 exposures to chlorine gas in the[en.wikipedia.org]
  • These concerns about cancer risks associated with chemical contamination from chlorination by-products have resulted in numerous epidemiological studies.[pure-earth.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • However, the health effects of chlorine inhalation after swimming pool accidents have been documented in only few studies, and have concentrated on pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and types of treatment. 3 4 Early physiological and clinical pulmonary[oem.bmj.com]

Prevention

  • To prevent poisoning it is important to use and store products exactly as their labels say. Keep dangerous products where children can't get to them. Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison.[icdlist.com]
  • You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.[medlineplus.gov]
  • […] inquiries: cdcinfo@cdc.gov Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards[emergency.cdc.gov]
  • Understanding the toxic effect of chlorine gas is important for preventive measures and for recognition when a person is affected.[sciencing.com]
  • But wouldn’t you rather just bathe in cleaner water and prevent these problems in the first place? You should filter the Chlorine and other harmful chemicals out of your bathing water.[clarityforspas.com]

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