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Toxic Liver Disease

Toxic Liver Disease Unspecified


Presentation

  • At present, DILIN has developed protocols for both retrospective and prospective studies of drug-induced liver disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Paper presented at the IXth Biennial Scientific Meeting of Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, January 1994, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 36. Laurin J, Lindor KD, Crippin JS, Gossard A, Gores GJ, Ludwig J, et al.[aafp.org]
  • Often acetaminophen may be present in several medications which could cause you to take a dose of acetaminophen that exceeds the safe limits.[patients.gi.org]
  • Further comment is not possible, she says, without seeing more findings than those in a brief abstract presented at the meeting.[webmd.com]
  • Information presented in the LiverTox database is derived from the scientific literature and public databases and reflects professional expertise of the authors. Such information does not represent official policy of the U.S.[livertox.nih.gov]
Pain
  • Others may have Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements Stomach pain Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes Some forms of hepatitis are mild, and others can be serious.[icdlist.com]
  • Prescription and over-the-counter arthritis and pain medications are widely used. NSAIDs, which are taken to alleviate headache and a variety of pain symptoms, can cause idiosyncratic liver toxicity.[aafp.org]
  • Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy, Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Caries, Prevention Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Cataracts (Prevention) Cataracts, Diabetic Cavities, Prevention Cerebral Vascular Accident Cervical Dysplasia Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) Cervical Pain[therapy.epnet.com]
  • Pain in the abdomen. Nausea. Vomiting. Headache. Diarrhea. White stools. Rash. Build-up of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin). Enlarged liver. Fatigue. Weight loss. Loss of appetite.[drugabuse.com]
Fatigue
  • Chronic fatigue can stem from a number of origins and immediately assuming liver dysfunction and overreacting inappropriately should be avoided.[globalhealingcenter.com]
  • Immune Deficiency Syndrome (CFIDS) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Hepatitis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (in men) Chronic Prostatitis Cigarette Addiction Cigarette Smokers, Nutrition Cirrhosis[therapy.epnet.com]
  • Lack of energy and mental confusion Toxic liver disease can cause fatigue, weakness, and lack of energy. Fatigue in combination with nausea, diarrhea, and loss of appetite are the first signs of liver failure, requiring immediate medical attention.[powerofpositivity.com]
  • The symptoms of vitamin A toxicity may include bone and muscle aches, orange discoloration of skin, fatigue, and headache.[medicinenet.com]
  • Autoimmune hepatitis manifests insidiously as fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, jaundice, ascites, portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Nausea
  • Others may have Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements Stomach pain Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes Some forms of hepatitis are mild, and others can be serious.[icdlist.com]
  • Ounce of prevention Algae toxins can cause nausea and vomiting if ingested; rash or hay fever symptoms if touched or inhaled; and liver disease if drank. "Just looking at a bloom, you can't tell if it has toxins," said Lee, the OSU professor.[tcpalm.com]
  • Lack of appetite Nausea, vomiting, and/or lack of appetite have all been linked to toxic liver disease. As a result of the nausea, patients may also experience weight loss. Leptin is a hormone secreted by the body to make you feel full after eating.[powerofpositivity.com]
  • Symptoms of nitrofurantoin hepatitis include: fatigue, fever, muscle and joint aches, poor appetite, nausea, weight loss, vomiting, jaundice, and sometimes itching.[medicinenet.com]
  • When signs and symptoms of toxic hepatitis occur, they may include: Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) Itching Abdominal pain in the upper right portion of the abdomen Fatigue Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Rash Weight loss[mayoclinic.org]
Abdominal Pain
  • When signs and symptoms of toxic hepatitis occur, they may include: Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) Itching Abdominal pain in the upper right portion of the abdomen Fatigue Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Rash Weight loss[mayoclinic.org]
  • Counsel patients to promptly contact their health care provider for the following signs or symptoms: fatigue, weakness, vague abdominal pain, loss of appetite, itching, easy bruising, or yellowing of the eyes or skin.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Patients should be made aware of symptoms of liver injury, such as jaundice, anorexia, nausea, pruritus, fatigue and right upper quadrant abdominal pain.[aafp.org]
  • pain, and altered mental status Primary prophylaxis: Fluoroquinolone may be initiated in the hospitalized patient with severe liver disease and renal dysfunction Treatment: Third-generation cephalosporin, ampicillin/sulbactam, or fluoroquinolone, given[hiv.va.gov]
Jaundice
  • In addition to the elevation of ALT and AST levels, cases of liver necrosis, jaundice, and fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice have occurred.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Others may have Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements Stomach pain Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes Some forms of hepatitis are mild, and others can be serious.[icdlist.com]
  • […] external causes ( S00-T88 ) neoplasms ( C00-D49 ) symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified ( R00 - R94 ) Diseases of the digestive system K70-K77 2019 ICD-10-CM Range K70-K77 Diseases of liver Type 1 Excludes jaundice[icd10data.com]
  • In advanced cases, patients will develop enlarged livers and spleens, jaundice, and ascites (abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen).[medicinenet.com]
  • Jaundice Yellowing of the skin, nails and/or the whites of the eyes can reveal underlying toxicity. Jaundice signals that this disease has progressed to cirrhosis and you should seek medical help immediately. 2.[powerofpositivity.com]
Pruritus
  • Cholestyramine may be used for alleviation of pruritus. Ursodeoxycholic acid may be used. Lastly, consulting a hepatologist is also helpful.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Patients should be made aware of symptoms of liver injury, such as jaundice, anorexia, nausea, pruritus, fatigue and right upper quadrant abdominal pain.[aafp.org]
  • Fatigue Weight loss Inability to concentrate Decreased libido Pruritus (in cholestatic liver diseases) Physical examination Perform a thorough physical examination with special attention to the abdomen, skin, and neurologic system.[hiv.va.gov]

Workup

  • […] cardiovascular causes, especially right-sided heart failure Cholecystitis Cholangitis Budd-Chiari syndrome Alcoholic liver disease Cholestatic liver disease Pregnancy-related conditions of liver Malignancy Wilson disease Hemochromatosis Coagulation disorders Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • When treatment with a potentially hepatotoxic medication is deemed necessary, the drug should be used with caution and under close supervision.[aafp.org]
  • No specific treatment is indicated for drug-induced hepatic disease. Treatment is largely supportive and based on symptomatology. The first step is to discontinue the suspected drug.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018 is the most efficient, intuitive, and thorough resource of its kind, trusted by physicians to provide current diagnosis and treatment recommendations for hundreds of common medical conditions.[books.google.com]
  • Another ARV, FTC, is also active against HBV, but is not approved for treatment of HBV.[hiv.va.gov]
  • The rate of recovery increases if you receive treatment before the condition gets worse. Hepatic encephalopathy and its symptoms can be reversible with proper treatment.[healthline.com]

Prognosis

  • The first two stages of the disease have a good prognosis. Stage three and four have a poor prognosis. Call your provider if you or people around you notice any problems with your mental state or nervous system function.[medlineplus.gov]
  • The prognosis is highly variable depending on the patient's presentation and stage of liver damage.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The dose toxic to the liver is quite variable from person to person and is often thought to be lower in chronic alcoholics. [16] [17] Measurement of blood level is important in assessing prognosis, higher levels predicting a worse prognosis.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Prognosis and life expectancy in chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:1805–15. 10. Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, Monaco JH, Henley SJ, Heath CW, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults.[aafp.org]
  • AFP level does not correlate well with other clinical features of HCC, such as size, stage, or prognosis. Based on a systematic review, with a cutoff of 20 mcg/L, AFP has sensitivity of 41-65% and specificity of 80-94%.[hiv.va.gov]

Etiology

  • ICD-10-CM Codes › K00-K95 Diseases of the digestive system › K70-K77 Diseases of liver › Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]
  • The term “chronic liver disease” encompasses a large number of conditions having different etiologies and existing on a continuum between hepatitis infection and cirrhosis.[aafp.org]
  • The outcome of acute liver failure is determined by etiology, the degree of hepatic encephalopathy present upon admission, and complications such as infections.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 1997;26(3 suppl 1):S62–5. 5. Zein NN, Rakela J, Krawitt EL, Reddy KR, Tominaga T, Persing DH. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the United States: epidemiology, pathogenicity, and response to interferon therapy.[aafp.org]
  • The Epidemiology of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Global Perspective..[sugarscience.ucsf.edu]
  • Veterans with HIV* Cirrhosis: 2% Decompensated liver disease: 1% HCC: 0.3% HCV: 28% HBV: 11% Epidemiology of HIV and Liver Diseases High morbidity and mortality: In the U.S. general population, cirrhosis accounts for 40,000 deaths per year and for the[hiv.va.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] and mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury Pathophysiologic mechanisms The pathophysiologic mechanisms of hepatotoxicity are still being explored and include both hepatocellular and extracellular mechanisms.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 94. Wong MP, Moitra VK. Hepatic encephalopathy. In: Fleisher LA, Roizen MF, Roizen JD, eds.[medlineplus.gov]

Prevention

  • This article reviews preventive measures that have been shown to be effective or to have a scientific rationale in the management of chronic liver disease.[aafp.org]
  • Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.[icdlist.com]
  • Ounce of prevention Algae toxins can cause nausea and vomiting if ingested; rash or hay fever symptoms if touched or inhaled; and liver disease if drank. "Just looking at a bloom, you can't tell if it has toxins," said Lee, the OSU professor.[tcpalm.com]
  • Cachexia Calcium Oxalate Stones Cancer Prevention (Reducing the Risk) Cancer Treatment Support Candida Candida/Yeast Hypersensitivity Syndrome Canker Sores Car Sickness Cardiac Arrhythmia Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy, Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Caries, Prevention[therapy.epnet.com]
  • Treating liver problems may prevent HE. Avoiding heavy drinking and intravenous drug use can prevent many liver disorders. Hepatic coma; Encephalopathy - hepatic; Hepatic encephalopathy; Portasystemic encephalopathy Ferri FF. Hepatic encephalopathy.[medlineplus.gov]

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