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Toxocara Canis


  • Moreover, the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented the lowest IgM cross-reactivity. When tested as a combination, a mixture of the 58 and 68-kDa antigens presented 100% sensitivity and specificity, as well as minor cross-reactivity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy
  • CT investigation was focused on the location, size, contour, and internal features of the lesions; migration of lesions; mediastinal lymphadenopathy; and pleural effusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 48-year-old patient with Toxocara canis infection developed severe ataxia, rigor and neuropsychological disturbances. An aetiology was proven by an indirect immunofluorescence test.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CT investigation was focused on the location, size, contour, and internal features of the lesions; migration of lesions; mediastinal lymphadenopathy; and pleural effusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • We report a case of T canis infection manifested as abdominal pain with diarrhea, eosinophilia, and diffuse noncavitating nodules in an immunocompetent adult.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Toxocaral visceral larva migrans is characterised by fever, malaise, cough and bronchospasm, abdominal pain, and occasionally failure to thrive. Hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenitis, and bronchopulmonary signs predominate.[bmj.com]
  • Children can also develop a form known as covert toxocariasis, which can result in coughing, abdominal pain, difficulty sleeping, wheezing, or headaches. This form develops due to chronic exposure.[parasitophilia.blogspot.com]
  • Clinical manifestations of toxocarosis include frequently a marked hypereosinophilia and also asthenia, abdominal pain or asthma.[bordier.ch]
Vascular Disease
  • An 8-year-old girl was treated with albendazole therapy for common toxocariasis, but she developed two weeks later, asthenia, fever, infiltrated maculopapular eruption of the face, peripheral vascular disease with necrosis of the fingers and inflammatory[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pigmented Scar
  • Twenty-three patients were positive to serum IgG for T. canis with the following clinical manifestation: granuloma, 6; pigmented scar, 3; vitritis, 6--but none were PCR positive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Palpable Purpura
  • The diagnosis was made in a 17-year-old boy based on the association of palpable purpura, oligoarthritis, acute abdominal pain, microhematuria, and cutaneous vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIMS: Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined by recurrent episodes occurring at least twice a week for 6 weeks and generally characterized by the rapid appearance of wheals and/or angioedema and may be associated with parasitic infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The diagnosis was made in a 17-year-old boy based on the association of palpable purpura, oligoarthritis, acute abdominal pain, microhematuria, and cutaneous vasculitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Muscle Weakness
  • The patient was initially treated with intravenous methylprednisolone with slight improvement in muscle weakness. Albendazole was added with a second course of intravenous methylprednisolone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • MRI of cervical cord lesions and their resolution in Toxocara canis myelopathy. Neuroradiology. 1996;38: 792–795. pmid:8957808 View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 56. Goffette S, Jeanjean AP, Duprez TP, Bigaignon G, Sindic CJ.[journals.plos.org]
  • A 60-year-old man developed weakness and dysesthesia in the lower limbs. The symptoms resolved spontaneously, but recurred after five months. One month later, the patient developed pollakiuria and constipation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Motor impairment as well as sensory impairment and dysesthesia in Toxocara -positive humans [ 12 , 55 – 57 ] may therefore also be attributed to axonal damage, particularly requiring further investigations.[journals.plos.org]


  • The patients underwent extensive blood and CSF workup as well as MRI of the spinal cord and brain. Only 2 patients had a high eosinophil count in the CSF, although blood eosinophilia was seen in 6 patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The people with epilepsy who consented for further workup were then called to our institute for evaluation regarding cause of epilepsy.[annalsofian.org]
Echinococcus Multilocularis
  • According to the directive 2003/99/ECC, a first survey for the presence in foxes of Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara canis was conducted in Brussels from 2001 to 2004.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.[doi.org]
  • High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) and voles ( Arvicola terrestris ) in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.[link.springer.com]
White Matter Lesions
  • CT and MRI revealed both diffuse and circumscribed white matter lesions. Angiography showed multiple occlusion of branches of the middle cerebral artery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • We found that treatment with 300 or 400 MPa for 60 s killed 100% of eggs using embryonation as the standard. Treatment with 250, 241, and 207 MPa was less effective and killed 80%, 56%, and 8% of eggs, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pictured below are different levels of treatment. Treatments will vary based on your pets' age, production level and activity level.[en.wikipedia.org]


  • Prognosis The prognosis for VLM is generally good; however, chronic disease has potential correlations with both epilepsy and cognitive delay.[statpearls.com]
  • Those that require surgical intervention typically have a poorer prognosis and visual acuity.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • A study with longer follow up is required to see how multifocal granulomata differ in prognosis from usual focal granuloma of Toxocara.[wjgnet.com]
  • Prognosis and complications In the ocular form, outcome is variable but uniocular visual loss is not uncommon. In the visceral form, outcome is usually good but marked organ damage and even death can occur in extreme cases.[patient.info]
  • Commission on epidemiology and prognosis, international league against epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34:592-6. 20. Prasad KN, Prasad A, Gupta RK, Nath K, Pradhan S, Tripathi M, et al.[annalsofian.org]


  • The present study indicates that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs may be a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • M. (2002): Epidemiology of Toxascaris leonina infection post-weaning within a colony of dogs. J. Helminthol., 76(1): 27–29.[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The diagnostic approach, especially parasitic serological data, which must be carefully interpreted, are discussed; in addition, the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the production of ascites are evoked.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology Clinical disease is due to parasitic nematode larva migration through tissues. The signs and symptoms differ based on the affected organ and the host inflammatory response.[statpearls.com]
  • Pathophysiology In humans, after contact with infected fecal material, the roundworm migrates throughout various organs but is unable to sexually mature. Reactive inflammatory processes lead to the organism's encapsulation.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • In regard to nematodes, a role for eosinophils in the pathophysiology of Toxocara canis infection has been reported.[frontiersin.org]


  • The best treatment for puppies is pyrantel pamoate to prevent the larvae from reproducing and causing disease. There are several ways to prevent a T. canis infection in both dogs and humans.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Detection of circulating antigens helps provide appropriate and timely treatment and prevents irreversible damage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention/Control: Sanitation *Keeping premises clean of dog feces, *Keep on concrete runs; once soil is infected can't decontaminate, *Avoid puppy contact, *Discourage coprophagy (eating feces).[quizlet.com]

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