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Toxocara Cati

Feline Roundworm


Presentation

  • Origin Exotic Geo Schema Political Region Geo Region New Zealand Environmental Context Wild Occurrence Present Origin Exotic Scientific Name Authority Schrank Rank species Year 1788 Nomenclatural Comment vertebrate host, Terrestrial Governing Code ICZN[nzor.org.nz]
  • The authors of this paper presented a 6-year-old patient who developed an ocular form of toxocariasis. Research frontiers The current report presents a 6-year-old patient who developed an ocular form of toxocariasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although there are books available dealing with canine parasitology, there is at present no book detailing parasites that offers clinical information specific to felines.[books.google.com]
  • Mild focal infiltration of lymphocytes was present between cardiac muscle fibers of the infected chickens. No lesions were seen in other tissues of the infected chickens.[parasitol.kr]
Abdominal Pain
  • Patients may have pale skin, tiredness, weight loss, anorexia, fever, headache, rash, cough, asthma, chest tightness, increased irritability, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.[ivami.com]
  • These symptoms include recurrent abdominal pain which is often the sole presenting complaint, anorexia, behaviour disturbances, cervical adenitis, wheezing, limb pains, and fever ( 12 , 17 , 18 ) .[canada.ca]
  • These symptoms include recurrent abdominal pain which is often the sole presenting complaint, anorexia, behaviour disturbances, cervical adenitis, wheezing, limb pains, and fever ( 12, 17, 18 ).[phac-aspc.gc.ca]
  • Signs and symptoms can include fever, wheezing, hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, anorexia, or skin reaction.[en.wikipedia.org]
Regurgitation
  • Further unintended loss of worms may occur through coprophagia, mainly seen in dogs, or ingestion of regurgitated worms as seen in dogs and cats. Finally, only a necropsy can prove that the animal was completely cleared of an existing worm burden.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Withdrawn
  • The commercially available 0.35-ml pipette was emptied into a glass vial and the appropriate volume was withdrawn using a 1,000-μl pipette and applied to the cat's skin at the base of the skull in front of the shoulder blades.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Echinococcus Multilocularis
  • None of the individuals were positive for antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis .[liebertpub.com]
  • High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.[degruyter.com]
  • High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) and voles ( Arvicola terrestris ) in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.[link.springer.com]
Staphylococcus Aureus
  • aureus ATCC 35884 Streptococcus oralis DSM 20627 Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 6314-D Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12344-D Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006 Citrobacter freundii DSM 30039 Escherichia coli R453 Escherichia coli R456 Escherichia coli[doi.org]
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • pneumoniae ATCC 6314-D Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12344-D Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006 Citrobacter freundii DSM 30039 Escherichia coli R453 Escherichia coli R456 Escherichia coli R457 Haemophilus influenzae DSM 4690 Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC[doi.org]
Trichophyton Rubrum
  • rubrum CTMA MYC001 The test phase for the presence of T. canis and T. cati in fecal samples was carried out on a panel of 24 feces from dogs (n 14) and from cats (n 10) collected by the Clinivet veterinary centre (Table 3 ).[doi.org]
Alternaria
  • […] gonorrhoeae ATCC 53420-D Neisseria meningitidis DSM 10036 Providencia stuartii DSM 4539 Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50063 Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090 Pseudomonas syringae DSM 1241 Serratia marcescens DSM 30121 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DSM 8573 Alternaria[doi.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment with a broad-spectrum anthelmintic will control any cestode infection simultaneously. No treatment available for treatment of quiescent or reactivated larvae in the queen. Control via chemotherapies Fenbendazole Fenbendazole .[vetstream.com]
  • Treatment The aim of treatment is to protect young kittens and they should be treated routinely at 3 weekly intervals from 4 weeks to 16 weeks of age. In addition regular treatment of adults is advisable to reduce the re-infection rate.[provet.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • Pipreazine at a dose rate of 80-100 mg/kg body weight Prognosis The prognosis is good. Long term problems Re-infection is a problem in dogs living in areas in which there is high environmental contamination.[provet.co.uk]
  • Those that require surgical intervention typically have a poorer prognosis and visual acuity.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Prognosis and complications In the ocular form, outcome is variable but uniocular visual loss is not uncommon. In the visceral form, outcome is usually good but marked organ damage and even death can occur in extreme cases.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • In our case, we describe T. cati 's toxocarosis, albeit with an indirectly proven etiological connection.[pediatric-infectious-disease.imedpub.com]
  • In human beings, the main etiological agents for this syndrome are either Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati larvae (Schantz 1989).[memorias.ioc.fiocruz.br]
  • The etiology of visceral larva migrans. I. Diagnostic morphology of infective second-stage Toxocara larvae.[degruyter.com]
  • The etiology of visceral larva migrans. I. Diagnostic morphology of infective second-stage Toxocara larvae. J Parasitol. 1956;42:349-62. De Savigny DH.[revistabiomedica.org]

Epidemiology

  • Oxfordshire, CABI Publishing, pp 211–227 Google Scholar Overgaauw PAM (1997) Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology: toxocarosis in the human.[doi.org]
  • Topics covered include parasite identification, history, geographic distribution, pathogeneisis, epidemiology, zoonosis, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention.[books.google.com]
  • Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.[scielo.br]
  • It is important for the epidemiology of the disease that infected animals emitting eggs have no clinical manifestations.[pediatric-infectious-disease.imedpub.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology In humans, after contact with infected fecal material, the roundworm migrates throughout various organs but is unable to sexually mature. Reactive inflammatory processes lead to the organism's encapsulation.[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • Recently, Storch and colleagues ( 151 ) used clinical, neuroimaging, and serological data in a cross-sectional study of 20 patients suffering chronic VE to explore hypotheses relating to the pathophysiology and cause of chronic VE.[cmr.asm.org]

Prevention

  • Several heartworm preventatives also prevent and treat roundworm infections and include Heartgard , from Merial, and Revolution , manufactured by Pfizer.[critterology.com]
  • The main form of control is to prevent cats from obtaining infections by preventing access to paratenic hosts such as mice and other rodents and preventing access to eggs by promptly identifying and treating patent infections.[en.wikivet.net]
  • Topics covered include parasite identification, history, geographic distribution, pathogeneisis, epidemiology, zoonosis, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention.[books.google.com]
  • Good hygiene is good prevention Educate children to wash their hands after playing with dogs and cats. Try to stop children eating dirt and soil. Wash food that has been in contact with soil.[hyperdrug.co.uk]
  • Prevention and control of Toxocara cati infections It is highly advisable to prevent pets and puppies from eating or licking soil or other substrates potentially contaminated with eggs, but this is often very difficult to achieve.[parasitipedia.net]

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