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  • At present, the patient has a Tracheostoma Retainer in place and is being followed as an outpatient without the need for mechanical ventilation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Impaired Exercise Tolerance
  • Precise indications are evolving but may include symptomatic pediatric patients with known risk factors for TBM and patients with otherwise unexplained impaired exercise tolerance; recurrent lower airways infection; and therapy-resistant, irreversible[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These authors emphasize the importance of assessing for TBM in pediatric patients with a history of impaired exercise tolerance, recurrent lower airways infection, and therapy-resistant, irreversible, and/or atypical asthma (, 13 ).[dx.doi.org]
  • Patients filled out a Dyspnea Index questionnaire before and after treatment. Ten patients were treated for their tracheobronchomalacia with a mean age of 54 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] left main bronchus, which is easily replaceable and facilitates sputum aspiration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Aspiration bronchoscopy was used frequently in the postoperative period ( 16, 25, 30 ).[jtd.amegroups.com]
Pulmonary Disorder
  • Also, the majority of previous studies review TBM in patients with multiple pulmonary disorders. There is marked variability in the incidence of TBM in the literature.[ispub.com]


  • In this report, we review the treatment of TBM, including preoperative workup, intraoperative anesthesia management, and surgical technique for posterior splinting tracheobronchoplasty.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With increased awareness of TBM as an independent cause of clinical symptoms and functional impairment, the need for a standard diagnostic workup becomes more important.[rc.rcjournal.com]
  • As part of their diagnostic workup, all infants had structurally normal hearts on echocardiogram, normal sweat tests, and normal immune function. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was excluded or treated if confirmed.[fn.bmj.com]
  • Pulmonary function testing is often unhelpful in screening patients during the initial diagnostic workup.[jtd.amegroups.com]


  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients who had received treatment in our interventional pulmonology unit were analyzed. We analyzed the techniques used, stent duration, complications, and long-term treatment success retrospectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If the cause is genetic or the previous underlying issues could not be fixed, other treatments would be assessed.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] appropriate treatment is important. [10] Last updated: 3/22/2018 Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]


  • In general, the prognosis is good in children with primary TBM who do not have any associated problems.[rarediseases.info.nih.gov]
  • : cases with respiratory complications have worse prognosis and poorer response to corticosteroids Severe/Recurrent Tracheobronchitis (see Acute Bronchitis, [[Acute Bronchitis]]) Sulfur Mustard Gas Exposure (se Sulfur Mustard Gas, [[Sulfur Mustard Gas[mdnxs.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis In most cases, no treatment is required or offered.[radiopaedia.org]


  • This paper describes our experience standardizing the approach to these complex patients whose backgrounds include different disease etiologies, as well as a variety of comorbid conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Results: Etiology of the tracheobronchial obstruction included primary TBM in 10 cases (25.6%), congenital vascular compression in 14 (35.9%), and postoperative vascular compression in 15 (38.5%).[circ.ahajournals.org]
  • […] tracheomalacia Immature Autonomic Nervous System Laryngomalacia Neurologic impairment : occurs in 8 to 48% of infants with tracheomalacia Severe Developmental Delay : occurs in 26% of infants with tracheomalacia Subglottic Stenosis Vocal Cord Paralysis Etiology[mdnxs.com]


  • This review discusses the physiology, histopathology, epidemiology, and clinical features of TBM; it also describes current methods of diagnosis, available therapies, and postoperative imaging evaluation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology History : earliest references to tracheomalacia are from the 1930’s-1940’s, describing congenital thoracic vascular abnormalities which resulted in tracheal obstruction Prevalence : acquired tracheobronchomalacia is more common than congenital[mdnxs.com]
  • This review discusses the physiology, histopathology, epidemiology, and clinical features of TBM; it also describes current methods of diagnosis, available therapies, and postoperative imaging evaluation. * Center for Airway Imaging and the Department[journals.lww.com]
  • Balali-Mood’s research areas include clinical toxicology of chemical warfare agents, organophosphorous pesticide poisonings, heavy metals, drug abuse and overdosage, epidemiology of poisonings, occupational and environmental toxicology, and natural toxins[books.google.com]
  • Epidemiology The lack of standardization in the diagnosis of EDAC and its non-distinction from TBM in the past is an obstacle in defining the epidemiology of this disease.[shortnessofbreath.it]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • The aetiology, pathophysiology and management are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Without a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology and natural history of this condition we cannot be certain of the feasibility of earlier diagnosis.[fn.bmj.com]


  • The stenting technique used did not prevent the development of respiratory failure and death in this patient. Hence, a surgical procedure could be considered as an alternative to stenting in such cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • More severe treatments include silicone stenting to prevent tracheal constriction, surgery to strengthen or attempt to rebuild the walls, continuous positive airway pressure that has a machine blow small amounts of air into the trachea to keep it open[en.wikipedia.org]

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