Trachonychia (meaning "rough nails") is a medical term encompassing a primary disorder of the nail unit that mainly develops as an idiopathic condition. A number of dermatologic, genetic, autoimmune and systemic diseases, however, have been linked with trachonychia. Two types are described: opaque (a more common form in which the nails are brittle, thin, and rough) or shiny trachonychia (superficial ridging and pitting being the main features). Clinical findings are crucial in making the diagnosis.
Trachonychia is a term denoting a type of nail disorder that primarily arises as an idiopathic disorder seen in individuals of all ages and gender   . However, a number of isolated reports have described a strong association of trachonychia ("rough nails") with various disorders of genetic, autoimmune, and infectious origin, most important being alopecia areata    . Two clinical subtypes are documented in the literature:
- Opaque trachonychia - The nail surface appears very rough, as if it was rubbed by sandpaper ("sandpaper nails" is often used as a term), and is regarded as the more severe type  . In addition, the nails are more fragile and exhibit severe longitudinal ridging, whereas onychoschizia (nail splitting) is also a common feature  .
- Shiny trachonychia - Abundant nail pitting and shiny, opalescent nails are the hallmarks of a milder subtype known as shiny trachonychia . Ridging, although present, is not as severe like in opaque trachonychia, and is formed out of the smaller pits  . Shiny trachonychia is more commonly associated with alopecia areata than opaque trachonychia, which is why accompanying features of this dermatologic condition (hair loss) might be simultaneously observed  . Koilonychia (spoon nails) is a common feature of both subtypes .
Entire Body System
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- Congestive Heart Failure
Red lunulae occur mainly in congestive heart failure 23 ( Figure 6.27 ), although they can also be observed in patients with many other 6.29 ) disorders or may be idiopathic. Search Pocayo :: Custom Search [pocayo.com]
- Cutaneous Manifestation
There has been evidence of the condition as a cutaneous manifestation of lichen planus. It has also been associated with other diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis. [findwords.info]
There has been evidence of the condition as a cutaneous manifestation of lichen planus. [medbox.iiab.me]
There has been evidence of the condition as a cutaneous manifestation of lichen planus. It has also been associated with other diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, alopecia areata. [dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr]
There has been evidence of the condition as a cutaneous manifestation of lichen planus. It has also been associated with other diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, alopecia areata. It is more common in children and becomes less obvious with age. [salongeek.com]
Trachonychia is often seen in vitiligo patients – suggesting that they are more susceptible to this condition. [findwords.info]
It has also been associated with other diseases such as eczema, psoriasis, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis.  Trachonychia is often seen in vitiligo patients – suggesting that they are more susceptible to this condition.  [medbox.iiab.me]
(1995) Response of psoriasis to a lymphocyte-selective toxin (DAB389IL-2) suggests a primary immune, but not keratinocyte, pathogenic basis. الصفحة 96 - Freeman GJ, Gribben JG, Boussiotis VA, et al. [books.google.com]
"trachonychia"是什么意思 造句与例句 手机版 Trachonychia is often seen in vitiligo patients suggesting that they are more susceptible to this condition. [ichacha.net]
In a study soon to be published in the Annales de Dermatologie et Syphiligraphie, we report on a number of cases of rough nails that are suggestive of an expression of alopecia areata and bear a clinical similarity to the cases reported by Drs Hazelrigg [jamanetwork.com]
A comprehensive clinical approach is necessary in order to make the diagnosis of trachonychia. A detailed history, during which patients should be inquired about the onset of symptoms and their progression, is recommended as the first step . A thorough family history of skin disorders is essential; the close inspection of the nails, the skin, the mucosal tissues (the oral cavity) and the hair is perhaps the crucial component of the workup, in order to exclude other dermatologic disorders . Some studies have used the term "twenty-nail dystrophy" or TND as a synonym for trachonychia, indicating the involvement of all twenty nails in the body, but that not may be the case in all patients  . Whenever a sandpaper-like appearance of the nails is observed, clinical suspicion towards trachonychia must be raised. Although distinct signs (and the underlying cause that led to this phenomenon) are yet to be solidified, the diagnosis remains on clinical grounds , but nail clipping (with subsequent histopathologic examination) is a rather useful method to differentiate between onychomycosis and trachonychia, as both can have a similar clinical presentation . Spongiosis, nail epithelia containing exocytosed inflammatory cells, and signs of lichen planus are main features on histopathology  . A longitudinal nail biopsy or obtaining a sample of the nail matrix is somewhat contraindicated because of the invasiveness of the procedures and scarring .
- Haber JS, Chairatchaneeboon M, Rubin AI. Trachyonychia: Review and Update on Clinical Aspects, Histology, and Therapy. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;2(3-4):109-115.
- Jacobsen AA, Tosti A. Trachyonychia and Twenty-Nail Dystrophy: A Comprehensive Review and Discussion of Diagnostic Accuracy. Skin Appendage Disord. 2016;2(1-2):7-13.
- Gordon KA, Vega JM, Tosti A. Trachyonychia: a comprehensive review. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:640–645.
- Dogruk Kacar S, Ozuguz P, Polat S. Coexistence of psoriasis, and alopecia areata with trachyonychia in a pediatric patient with Turner Syndrome. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2014;112:e209–e212.
- Tosti A, Fanti PA, Morelli R, Bardazzi F. Trachyonychia associated with alopecia areata: A clinical and pathologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:266-70.