Traumatic cataract is an opacification of the eye's normally clear lens due to various kinds of physical and electrical injury, as well as radiation exposure. Trauma is one of the acquired causes of cataracts, but they may also be congenital. The classification of traumatic cataracts usually entails a description of their location and shape.
A history of trauma is necessary but may not be recent, as cataracts often develop slowly, and may appear years after the incident. Traumatic cataracts can be unilateral or bilateral. Injury due to blunt trauma is most commonly encountered, although penetrating trauma and other non-mechanical agents can also cause them  . Children constitute a sizable proportion of the population affected, and it has been reported that males are significantly more at risk than females  . The most frequent patterns of injury seen also vary between different age groups, with children more likely to be injured during play, and young adults during sports. The same applies for residence, as certain types of injuries are more likely to occur in rural rather than urban areas, for instance, accidental injury while collecting wood  .
Signs of traumatic cataracts are generally the same as those seen in other types of cataracts, with complaints of several visual disturbances such as blurred vision, diplopia, reduced day or night vision, and eventually blindness. The classical shape of trauma related cataracts is rosette or stellate, however traumatic cataracts are not limited to this configuration, given the possible mechanisms of the trauma . On account of the etiology of these cataracts, in addition to the above problems, many patients also have concurrent damage to other ocular, orbital and cranial structures and the severity is often proportional to the force imparted .
The next step is a thorough ophthalmological exam, ranging from testing visual acuity using the Snellen chart and the range of eye movements to visualizing the eyes' structures through an ophthalmoscope; which may show abnormalities in the red reflex. A slit lamp examination, if available, is best for a more detailed inspection of ocular contents and a clearer view of cataracts. Furthermore, a complete physical examination is important, with emphasis on searching for signs of cranial nerve injury, fractures, intracranial and periorbital hemorrhage.
Imaging studies are necessary, to evaluate the extent of ocular damage and to reveal any foreign bodies that may have been missed. The techniques of ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan are often employed, as they are all useful and have their own advantages  . Ultrasound is ideal for assessing intraocular damage as well as detecting foreign bodies, while CT scans show fractures in the orbits and cranium . MRI scans may be used to detect non-magnetic foreign bodies.
Routine blood tests including a full blood count, complete metabolic panel and clotting studies can be done if surgery is anticipated.