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Traumatic Pneumothorax


Presentation

  • Pneumothorax is a common presentation to the emergency department, arising from traumatic and non-traumatic aetiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case highlights a unique presentation of pneumothorax in a healthy young individual.[omicsonline.org]
  • Case report We present the case of a 22 year old man who was admitted to the emergency department after a motorcycle accident having a painless crepitant scrotum and chest excoriations.[link.springer.com]
Hunting
  • Turki SA, Ali J, Antoine JA, Bouillon B, Brasel K, Brenneman F, Brink PR, Brohi K, Burris D, Burton RA, Chapleau W, Cioffi W, Collet e Silva Fde S, Cooper A, Cortes JA, Eskesen V, Fildes J, Gautam S, Gruen RL, Gross R, Hansen KS, Henny W, Hollands MJ, Hunt[pedemmorsels.com]
Dyspnea
  • However, the clinical findings in this case did not have the typical presentation of a sudden onset of dyspnea or decreased oxygen saturation [ 5 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • Rupture of bleb (blisters) on lung in COPD or Congenital (present from birth -Dyspnea (labored breathing) -Dry hacking cough -Asymmetric chest movement -Diminished or absent BS over affected side -Hyperresonance on percussion -Subcutaneous Emphysema ([quizlet.com]
  • Symptoms include chest pain from the causative injury and sometimes dyspnea. Diagnosis is made by chest x-ray. Treatment is usually with tube thoracostomy.[merckmanuals.com]
Hyperresonance
  • Breath sounds may be diminished and the affected hemithorax hyperresonant to percussion—mainly with larger pneumothoraces. However, these findings are not always present and may be hard to detect in a noisy resuscitation setting.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Rupture of bleb (blisters) on lung in COPD or Congenital (present from birth -Dyspnea (labored breathing) -Dry hacking cough -Asymmetric chest movement -Diminished or absent BS over affected side -Hyperresonance on percussion -Subcutaneous Emphysema ([quizlet.com]
  • The classic clinical presentation for pneumothorax is one of sudden onset dyspnea, diminished breath sounds, decreased chest excursion, and hyperresonance to percussion [ 1 - 5 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • On lung examination, hyperresonance to percussion, decreased tactile fremitus, and diminished breath sounds are present on the affected side.[journals.lww.com]
Pleuritic Pain
  • A: Pleuritic pain is a clinical manifestation of pneumothorax. B: Respiratory distress is a clinical manifestation of pneumothorax. D: Tachypnea is a clinical manifestation of pneumothorax. 3. Answer: D. All of the above.[nurseslabs.com]
  • What to look for Whether traumatic, iatrogenic, or spontaneous, pneumothorax causes these cardinal signs and symptoms: sudden, sharp, pleuritic pain exacerbated by chest movement, breathing, and coughing asymmetric chest wall movement shortness of breath[journals.lww.com]
  • Chest pain : a pleuritic pain may give a sensation of breathlessness. Examples include pleurodynia and Bornholm disease. Pulmonary embolism may produce haemoptysis and a few rales over the affected area.[patient.info]
Pulmonary Disorder
  • Pharmacotherapy Medication may be necessary to treat a pulmonary disorder that causes the pneumothorax. For example, intravenous antibiotics are included in the treatment of a pneumothorax that developed as a sequela of staphylococcal pneumonia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pleural Disorder
  • Pleural Disorders Your pleura is a large, thin sheet of tissue that wraps around the outside of your lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Between the layers of the pleura is a very thin space.[icdlist.com]
Chest Pain
  • Symptoms include chest pain from the causative injury and sometimes dyspnea. Diagnosis is made by chest x-ray. Treatment is usually with tube thoracostomy.[merckmanuals.com]
  • While the majority of injuries from airborne operations are not to the chest, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for pneumothorax in patients presenting with dyspnea or chest pain following airborne operations.[omicsonline.org]
  • When to Seek Medical Care for a Collapsed Lung A doctor should be seen after any symptoms of chest pain are experienced, because of the possibility of other equally or more serious causes of chest pain.[emedicinehealth.com]
Cyanosis
  • Atelectasis and Pneumothorax Lungs Pain Trouble breathing Faintness Cyanosis Mucus plug Tumor Inhaled foreign object Physical trauma to the lung Wound Overview Atelectasis and pneumothorax are conditions in which the lung or part of the lung collapses[nm.org]
  • Central cyanosis. The patient may develop central cyanosis from severe hypoxemia. Chest expansion. In simple and tension pneumothorax, the chest expansion is decreased. Breath sounds.[nurseslabs.com]
  • […] lung which is worse on inspiration Shortness of breath For a larger pneumothorax Tachycardia – a heart rate of 100bpm or more Tachypnoea – a breathing rate of 20 breaths a minute or more Hypercapnia – increase in blood co2 levels Hypoxia (leading to cyanosis[ukessays.com]
  • In addition to chest pain and breathing difficulties, its symptoms include tachycardia, cyanosis, distended blood vessels on the neck and hypotension.[ebm-guidelines.com]
  • Cyanosis or blueness of the skin will occur as the tissues lose their oxygen. Decreased levels of consciousness may occur because of the low blood pressure , decreased brain perfusion, and low oxygenation.[emedicinehealth.com]
Insect Bite
  • bite or sting, venomous ( T63.4 ) Injuries to the thorax S27 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code S27 Injury of other and unspecified intrathoracic organs 2016 2017 2018 2019 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Code Also any associated open wound of thorax ( S21.- )[icd10data.com]
  • ) effects of foreign body in esophagus ( T18.1 ) effects of foreign body in lung ( T17.8 ) effects of foreign body in trachea ( T17.4 ) frostbite ( T33 - T34 ) injuries of axilla injuries of clavicle injuries of scapular region injuries of shoulder insect[icd10coded.com]

Treatment

  • […] was to retrospectively review a series of consecutive patients treated for chest trauma between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2005, focusing particularly on cases of pneumothorax and hemothorax. alone or in combination, and to critically assess the treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, there are usually no long-term effects after successful treatment for a pneumothorax. Call your health care provider if symptoms come back after treatment of a traumatic pneumothorax. If untreated, tension pneumothorax can develop.[lutheranaugustanacenter.com]

Prognosis

  • The numerical size is valuable mainly for quantifying progression and resolution rather than for determining prognosis.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The prognosis for traumatic pneumothorax is excellent if there are no other life-threatening injuries; for spontaneous pneumothorax, the prognosis depends on the underlying cause and method of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis If the pneumothorax was an isolated event and treatment was initiated early, the prognosis is excellent. The rate of recurrence of a simple spontaneous pneumothorax can be as high as 30% ipsilateral and 10% contralateral.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • However, we didn’t cut extra holes due to the possibility of the tube breaking in the pleural space, and our patient had a good prognosis without any complications. Our experience with this technique is encouraging.[signavitae.com]

Etiology

  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • The emergency department (ED) treatment of pneumothoraces depends on their size, their etiology, and clinical stability of the patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • While ruptured blebs have been determined as an etiology of pneumothorax in otherwise healthy young male military service members, a more common etiology of pneumothorax among service members results from blunt trauma, usually secondary to a rib fracture[omicsonline.org]
  • Discussion Subcutaneous emphysema of the scrotum – especially of traumatic etiology – is not a common medical condition. Causes that may result in the presence of air in the scrotum are: 1.[link.springer.com]
  • […] pneumothorax occurs as a complication of underlying lung disease Tension pneumothorax : : life-threatening variant of pneumothorax characterized by progressively increasing pressures within the chest and cardiorespiratory compromise References: [1] Etiology[amboss.com]

Epidemiology

  • Woven throughout the content is new and updated material that reflects key practice differences in Canada, ranging from the healthcare system, to cultural considerations, epidemiology, pharmacology, Web resources, and more.[books.google.de]
  • CONCLUSION There is evidence of two epidemiologically distinct forms of spontaneous pneumothorax in England.[thorax.bmj.com]
  • Epidemiology Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Sex : ( approx. 6:1 ) Peak incidence : 20–3 0 years Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax Sex : ( approx. 3:1 ) Peak incidence : 60–65 years References: [1] Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise[amboss.com]
  • INTRODUCTION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Pneumothorax occurs when free air enters the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • A prospective, population-based study of the demographics, epidemiology, management, and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Ann Emerg Med. ‎[books.google.it]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • One of the top-selling titles from the Incredibly Easy series, the fully updated 5th edition of Pathophysiology Made Incredibly Easy presents information vital to nurses and student nurses on the difficult topic of pathophysiology in an easy-to-learn,[books.google.de]
  • Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts of Disease Processes. St Louis, Mo: Mosby; 1997:409-431.[healio.com]
  • Although there is sufficient evidence to advocate a conservative approach in these patients [19], the underlying pathophysiology is likely to differ from traumatic Pneumothorax [20].[scirp.org]
  • Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of pneumothorax include: Negative pressure. The negative pressure is required to maintain lung inflation. Breach. When either pleura is breached, air enters the pleural space. Collapse.[nurseslabs.com]
  • Source Excerpted and adapted from Pathophysiology Made Incredibly Easy ! 2nd edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002. 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.[journals.lww.com]

Prevention

  • BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax is one of the leading causes of preventable death in trauma patients. Chest radiograph has a lower sensitivity than a computed tomography (CT) scan for the diagnosis of pneumothorax.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • You may need any of the following: Medicines: Antibiotics: This medicine is given to help treat or prevent an infection caused by bacteria.[drugs.com]
  • Also as a result of the increase CO2 blood levels there is an increase in breathing rate to prevent acidosis of the blood thus patients may experience tachypnoea.[ukessays.com]
  • Use safety measures such as seat belts to prevent injuries. Murray J, Nadel J. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2000. Marx J. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 5th ed. St.[lutheranaugustanacenter.com]
  • An appropriate course of action is vital to prevent further complications. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between the two conditions to administer proper treatment.[healio.com]

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