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Trichiasis


Presentation

  • Web report Last updated: 26 Apr 2018 Author: Indigenous eye health measures 2017 is an online presentation of the latest Indigenous eye health data.[aihw.gov.au]
  • Chapter 12 Trichiasis First published: 20 May 2015 Summary This chapter presents the diagnosis and treatment for trichiasis that is commonly found in Cocker Spaniel, Shih Tzu, Pug, and Miniature Poodle.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • In trichiasis, none of the above conditions are present, and 1 or more eyelashes are misdirected toward the eye. If trichiasis exists, a child’s eye can be irritated. This can cause tearing, avoidance of light, pain and discharge.[texaschildrens.org]
  • SIGNS • Misdirected eyelash(s) • Conjuctival congestion • Lacrimation • Reflex blephrospasm • Signs of causative disease viz:trachoma,blephritis may be present 5 6.[de.slideshare.net]
  • Epilation Rajak 2011a presents a complete data set with high rates of follow‐up. Lid taping Graz 1999 presents a complete data set with high rates of follow‐up. Antibiotic treatment Burton 2005a presents a complete data set with high follow‐up.[cochranelibrary.com]
Anemia
  • Liver failure, testicular atrophy, pulmonary fibrosis, aplastic anemia, and osteoporosis along with features of aging such as premature grey hair and loss are typical.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
Hypertension
  • His medical history is significant for diabetes and hypertension, which are both treated pharmacologically with generic medications. His ocular history is reportedly unremarkable; he currently wears glasses for reading only.[reviewofoptometry.com]
Sparse Eyelashes
  • Keratinization of the lid margins, absent lacrimal puncta, trichiasis, cicatrizing conjunctivitis, entropion, ectropion, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, and symblephara are important features.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
Osteoporosis
  • Liver failure, testicular atrophy, pulmonary fibrosis, aplastic anemia, and osteoporosis along with features of aging such as premature grey hair and loss are typical.[disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
Fracture
  • Surgical techniques include eyelid wedge resection, horizontal blepharotomy, tarsal fracturing and eyelid splitting. 15 Surgical or radiosurgical splitting of the lid margin allows for direct access to the lash follicles, which can then be efficiently[reviewofophthalmology.com]
Foreign Body Sensation
  • SYMPTOMS •Foreign body sensation •Photophobia •Irritation •Pain •Lacrimation 4 5. SIGNS • Misdirected eyelash(s) • Conjuctival congestion • Lacrimation • Reflex blephrospasm • Signs of causative disease viz:trachoma,blephritis may be present 5 6.[de.slideshare.net]
  • It can be asymptomatic or cause pain, foreign body sensation, red eye, tearing, and corneal scratches leading to infection and scarring. What are the causes? In children is it often due to the lashes changing with age, and it often is temporary.[aapos.org]
  • The misdirected eyelashes from chronic trichiasis can produce symptoms like redness, irritation, foreign body sensation, and tearing.[edow.com]
  • People with trichiasis often complain of the following symptoms: Foreign body sensation Eye redness Blurry vision Watery eyes Eye pain Many say they feel like something is scratching their eye or they think that there is a piece of sand in their eye.[verywellhealth.com]
Eye Pain
  • Symptoms of trichiasis include: Constant eye irritation Eye pain, redness and/or irritation Excessive or abnormal tearing Excessive sensitivity to light Treatment for trichiasis Treatment for trichiasis depends on the number of eyelashes affecting the[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • This will result in eye pain ranging from mild to moderate, redness and excessive tearing. What causes trichiasis? Aging is the most common cause of trichiasis, since the skin loses its elasticity with age.[optom.on.ca]
  • People with trichiasis often complain of the following symptoms: Foreign body sensation Eye redness Blurry vision Watery eyes Eye pain Many say they feel like something is scratching their eye or they think that there is a piece of sand in their eye.[verywellhealth.com]
  • None of these studies gave weight to the possibility of functional limitations among persons with trichiasis without visual acuity loss because of photophobia and eye pain that are commonly associated with trichiasis.[jamanetwork.com]
Blurred Vision
  • You may have blurred vision. Or, you might have no symptoms. Eyelashes that brush up against your cornea -- the clear, front part of your eye -- for a long time could cause eye irritation or a more serious condition on the surface of your eye.[webmd.com]
  • A 60-year-old gentleman presents for evaluation, complaining of blurred vision in both eyes and chronic irritation of his right eye for the last six months.[reviewofoptometry.com]
Redness of Eye
  • Ectropion can be uncomfortable and itchy, leading to tearing, redness, dry eye, and blurry vision. The condition typically only affects the lower eyelid. In mild cases of ectropion, only a section of the eyelid is turned outward.[edow.com]
Confusion
  • Trichiasis describes eyelashes which are mis-directed towards the eyeball, and should not be confused with entropion, in which the eyelid itself is rolled inwards.[esoprs.eu]
  • Trichiasis describes eyelashes that are misdirected towards the eye, and should not be confused with an entropion, in which the eyelid margin itself is rolled inwards against the eye.[bopss.co.uk]
Neglect
  • Quality of life: although it has been shown that most trichiasis patients are happy with the results of their surgery the impact of surgery on quality of life and what might enhance this is a neglected area of research, Description of the condition Clinical[cochranelibrary.com]

Workup

Chlamydia
  • […] growth of lashes is usually secondary to severe chemical burn, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, or chronic blepharoconjunctivitis Predisposing factors Staphylococcal blepharitis Trachoma (a form of chronic conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia[college-optometrists.org]
  • In endemic regions of the world, trachoma—a chronic, infectious keratoconjunctivitis associated with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis —is a major cause of trichiasis development. 1 Other potential contributory conditions include[reviewofoptometry.com]
  • It is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. This infection causes inflammation and scarring of the surface of the eye, which results in the eyelid turning in (entropion) so that the eyelashes touch the eyeball.[cochranelibrary.com]

Treatment

  • The treatment of entropion is not addressed in this article. Rather, we will discuss the treatment of trichiasis in well-positioned eyelid margins, or in lids after entropion correction.[reviewofophthalmology.com]
  • None of these treatments are 100% effective. In some cases, the treatment will need to be repeated.[texaschildrens.org]
  • What is involved in trichiasis treatment? Trichiasis treatment seeks to remove the hair follicles of the abnormal eyelashes . Although trichiasis treatment appears simple, no technique is completely effective.[barraquer.com]
  • Treatment of trichiasis using an 810-nm diode laser: an efficacy study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Nov-Dec;22(6):445-7. 8. Moore J, De Silva SR, O'Hare K, Humphry RC. Ruby laser for the treatment of trichiasis.[reviewofoptometry.com]

Etiology

  • The primary etiology of trichiasis involves aging changes to the lids and lid margins, but scarring of the lid (from trauma, infection or inflammation) can also induce this condition.[reviewofoptometry.com]
  • […] trichiasis and anecdotal reports of functional limitations, trichiasis may lead to measurable limitations prior to visual acuity loss and, in combination with visual acuity loss, be associated with greater limitations than low vision associated with other etiologies[jamanetwork.com]

Epidemiology

  • West SKMunoz BTurner VMMmbaga BBTaylor HR The epidemiology of trachoma in central Tanzania. Int J Epidemiol. 1991;201088- 1092 Google Scholar Crossref 10.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Epidemiology The most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates suggest that about 40 million people have active trachoma and about 8.2 million have trichiasis ( Mariotti 2009 ).[cochranelibrary.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • If this does not alleviate the discomfort, however, a minor surgery can be performed to correct entropion, preventing the eyelid from folding under.[edow.com]
  • Doxycycline prevents matrix remodeling and contraction by trichiasis-derived conjunctival fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jul 12. 54(7):4675-82. [Medline]. [Full Text].[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epilation was less effective at preventing eyelashes from touching the globe than surgery for mild trichiasis, but had comparable results for vision and corneal change.[cochrane.org]

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