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Trichomonas Vaginitis

Trichomoniasis Vaginal


Presentation

  • We studied the accuracy of the traditional wet-mount technique as compared with detection using direct immunofluorescence and culture techniques in ED patients with the presenting complaint of vaginal discharge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Trichomonads on the wet mount mean trichomoniasis is present. Clue cells means bacterial vaginosis is present. If many Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria are present, this also may mean bacterial vaginosis is present.[northshore.org]
  • Newer tests for diagnosis of trichomonas reveal that this condition is frequently missed both as an asymptomatic infection as well as when patients present with symptoms.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • Two scenarios are presented, based on the history physical examination findings.[canada.ca]
Urticaria
  • Adverse reactions that may occur include anaphylaxis, skin rashes, pustular eruptions, pruritis, flushing, urticaria and fever [29].[pharmaceutical-journal.com]
  • The most common reactions reported from metronidazole are urticaria and facial edema, while other adverse reactions include flushing, fever and anaphylactic shock from immediate-type hypersensitivity have been reported.[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]
Vaginal Discharge
  • We studied the accuracy of the traditional wet-mount technique as compared with detection using direct immunofluorescence and culture techniques in ED patients with the presenting complaint of vaginal discharge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The most common symptoms are an unusual vaginal discharge, vaginal itch and pain during sexual intercourse. Antibiotics are needed to treat the infection. Sexual partners should also be treated.[ada.com]
  • Symptoms include inflammation of the cervix, urethra and vagina which produce an itching or burning sensation, and yellow-green, itchy, frothy foul-smelling vaginal discharge.[malacards.org]
  • Symptoms include: White or grey vaginal discharge Fishy odor from the vagina Mild vaginal itching or burning can occasionally occur How do I get tested? Swabs are taken from the vagina.[ottawapublichealth.ca]
  • See: illustration ; colpitis macularis Symptoms T. vaginalis causes persistent burning, redness, and itching of the vulvar tissue associated with a profuse vaginal discharge that may be frothy or malodorous or both.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Dysuria
  • Symptoms include vaginal discharge (which is often diffuse, malodorous, yellow-green), dysuria, itching, vulvar irritation and abdominal pain.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Itching dysuria, and offensive, malodorous, thin, yellowish vaginal discharge were the main and consistent complaints.[ijmm.org]
  • Other common symptoms include vulval itching, dysuria or offensive odour. Lower abdominal discomfort can occur in some women. There may be signs of local inflammation with vulvitis and vaginitis.[patient.info]
  • Urethral infection in male causes dysuria, frequency of urination and dirty-white discharge containing leukocytes, epithelial cells and trichomonads. Secondary bacterial infections may occur.[yourarticlelibrary.com]
  • Acute infections are characterised by severe pruritus, vaginitis, vulvitis with dysuria and dyspareunia, and hemorrhagic spots on the mucosa (in 2% of patients) which results in colpitis macularis or petechiae (strawberry cervix).[msdsonline.com]

Workup

  • Trichomoniasis workup. Medscape. Available online at . Accessed February 2017. (2016 November). Advances in laboratory detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (updated). Association of Public Health Laboratories. Available online at .[labtestsonline.it]
  • Epididymitis Gonococcal Infections Nonbacterial Prostatitis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Urethritis Vaginitis Other Problems to be Considered : Bacterial vaginosis Atrophic vaginitis with secondary infection Erosive lichen planus Foreign body vaginosis WORKUP[csh.org.tw]

Treatment

  • The test for cure was done 5 days after treatment. The cure rate under these conditions was 98%. Side effects were infrequent and minor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The overall success rate of the treatment assessed by wet smear and clinical signs after three days in 68 cases was 98.5%. The side effects were mild and of short duration. These were noted in 14.7% of the assessable cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment A trichomonas infection is treated with antibiotic tablets. It is important to tell and treat the sexual partner(s) to prevent re-infection and further spread of the infection.[ada.com]
  • “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010”. MMWR Recomm Rep. vol. 59. 2010. pp. 1 (Updated Guidelines from the CDC which guide treatment for sexually transmitted infections.)[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Prognosis

  • What Is The Prognosis? Treatment with metronidazole produces a cure in about 95% of patients. Prevention Important preventive measures include regular use of latex condoms or abstaining from sexual activity.[healthychildren.org]
  • Control of T vaginalis may represent an important means of slowing HIV transmission, particularly among African Americans. [37] Prognosis Recommended metronidazole therapy regimens have produced a 90-95% cure rate in randomized clinical trials. [9] The[emedicine.medscape.com]

Etiology

  • Although we did not test for other organisms thought to be etiologic agents of NGU, the role and potential contribution to the etiology of the clinical findings, which are termed NGU, remains speculative.[academic.oup.com]
  • The second step is to make an etiological diagnosis of vaginitis that is easy from a clinical point of view and extremely important for an accurate homotoxicological therapy.[encognitive.com]
  • TrichomoniasisTrichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasisMode of infection ; STDreservoir for this species - human genital tractSexually transmitted infection of the urogenital tractVaginitis in women- site of infection –vagina,urethraUrethritis[slideshare.net]
  • Analogous ramifications have been postulated for T. vaginalis and a viral etiology of much greater prevalence. Persistent human papillomavirus infection factors into the development of cervical neoplasia.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
  • SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: T. vaginalis is generally restricted to the genitourinary tract by the host's immune system, and is the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis(2).[msdsonline.com]

Epidemiology

  • Smith, PhD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, McGavran-Greenberg, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. E-mail: jennifers@unc.edu.[journals.lww.com]
  • Annals of Epidemiology. 1995; 5 (4):325–332. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by bacteria and protozoa play an important role in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the minds of some laboratory diagnosticians, the other 3 public health importance criteria will become the subjects of additional TMA-based detection and epidemiologic data.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]
  • Poole DN, McClelland RS ; Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis. Sex Transm Infect. 2013 Sep89(6):418-22. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2013-051075. Epub 2013 Jun 6.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • STD Pathophysiology STD Prevention and Treatment STD Diagnosis History of Sexually Transmitted Disease[news-medical.net]
  • Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in male patients Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory[mayocliniclabs.com]
  • Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in female patients Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory[mayocliniclabs.com]
  • The precise epidemiologic and pathophysiologic features of neonatal Trichomonas infection have not been well described.[nature.com]

Prevention

  • It is important to tell and treat the sexual partner(s) to prevent re-infection and further spread of the infection. Prevention Practicing safe sex can prevent trichomonas infection.[ada.com]
  • Always using a condom can help prevent this infection. One dose of metronidazole or tinidazole taken by mouth cures most women.[merckmanuals.com]
  • How can I prevent bacterial vaginosis? Some individual will continue to get BV regularly.[ottawapublichealth.ca]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 1998 Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases . MMWR 1998, 47 :74–75.[link.springer.com]
  • “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010”. MMWR Recomm Rep. vol. 59. 2010. pp. 1 (Updated Guidelines from the CDC which guide treatment for sexually transmitted infections.)[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

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