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Trichuris Trichiura


Presentation

  • The present study extends this work to compare IgG1 and IgA isotype recognition of separated antigens by Western blot between the two communities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The present study describes Trichuris trichiura infections in a cohort of children over a period of approximately 5 years, and examines the relationships between changes in infection intensity and changes in parasite-specific isotype responses[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The present study examines antigenic variability for the human whipworm Trichuris trichiura.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is a case presented of massive gastrointestinal bleeding in which the cause of bleeding was diagnosed before operation to be whipworm infestation by endoscopic examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
High Fever
  • A 33 year-old woman was admitted with chief complaint of abdominal pain and high fever. A barium-enema showed serration and a tumor was seen in the proximal ascending colon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nasal Discharge
  • Controlling diarrhoea, nasal discharge and T. trichiura infection and improving maternal education may be important interventions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Irritability
  • Abstract The differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea is extensive and requires the investigation of several diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The worms may irritate the intestinal mucosa, causing inflammation and ulceration. Some produce “toxic” substances. The larger worms may become entangled and block the intestinal tract.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cognitive Deficit
  • However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Despite extensive workup no cause could be found for her cirrhosis. She was treated with albendazole for 3 days by which her diarrhoea subsided.[academic.oup.com]
Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin
  • Differences in red cell count, ferritin, and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin were not statistically significant and showed no association with the infectious load.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Wuchereria Bancrofti
  • Single-dose combinations of albendazole with ivermectin or of albendazole with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) have recently been seen to produce raid and sustained reductions in Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Granulomatous Tissue
  • Histopathologic examination revealed granulomatous tissue reaction due to penetrating of Trichuris trichiura. The patient is in good health now 20 months after operation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The parasite has been suspected as a cause of appendicitis, and gravid female worms have been known to migrate up the vagina and fallopian tubes and into the peritoneal cavity, where they become encapsulated with granulomatous tissue.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
HLA-A9
  • However, HLA-A9 positive individuals with high worm burden had significantly lower levels of sHLA-I in their plasma compared with HLA-A9 positive subjects with low worm burden.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • After 6 mo of treatment, there was no significant main effect on any of the outcomes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment effects were examined among infected children and there was no significant treatment effect for any of the tests. However, there was a significant treatment by weight-for-age interaction in fluency (P 0.05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n 62) or mebendazole (n 57).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These 155 were each randomly allocated to one of the three treatment groups and checked for infection 3 weeks post-treatment, again by a single stool examination.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The differential should include: Chronic anemia Giardiasis Other parasitic helminth infections Prognosis The whipworm tends to be more resistant to treatment than other helminths, with some studies listing cure rates as low as 28% to 36%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Etiology The most common cause of trichuriasis is ingestion of infected eggs that are found in soil. This is often due to poor sanitary conditions, including open defecation and using human feces as fertilizer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An epidemiological study of intestinal nematodes was conducted with 1,292 children, ranging from birth through 11 yr old, living in the Ranomafana rainforest of southeast Madagascar.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. guy.barker@zoology.oxford.ac.uk Abstract The major E/S protein of Trichuris trichiura, the human whipworm, is a highly immunogenic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: The intensity categories, or thresholds, currently used for Trichuris trichiura (ie. epg intensities of 1-999 (light); 1,000-9,999 epg (moderate), and 10,000 epg (heavy)) were developed in the 1980s, when there were little epidemiological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As the probability of false-positive results increases after examination of multiple stool samples from a single individual, the potential influence of false-positive results on epidemiological studies and anthelminthic drug efficacy studies should be[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • It is thought there is partial protective immunity that develops with age. [3] [4] Pathophysiology A human host consumes infected eggs, typically while eating food. Once the embryonated eggs are ingested, the larvae hatch in the small intestine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mathilde Versini, Pierre-Yves Jeandel, Tomer Bashi, Giorgia Bizzaro, Miri Blank and Yehuda Shoenfeld, Unraveling the Hygiene Hypothesis of helminthes and autoimmunity: origins, pathophysiology, and clinical applications, BMC Medicine, 13, 1, (2015).[doi.org]

Prevention

  • The causes of this increase are unknown and, currently, there are no interventions to prevent the development of allergic diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This study was undertaken to determine a threshold for T. trichiura-associated anemia in pregnant women and to describe the implications of this threshold in terms of the need for primary prevention and chemotherapeutic interventions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) Updated by: Jatin M.[medlineplus.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Commonly used drugs for preventive chemotherapy against soil-transmitted helminths (ie, albendazole and mebendazole) show low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Deterrence and Patient Education The best way to prevent trichuriasis is to improve personal hygiene, wash all fruit and vegetables, and teach everyone about the importance of hand washing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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