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Trypanosoma Cruzi

American Trypanosome


Presentation

  • At present, T. cruzi is partitioned into seven discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI and Tcbat.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, we present the molecular analyses from a Chagas disease patient with HIV/AIDS co-infection in Colombia who presented severe cardiomyopathy, pleural effusion, and central nervous system involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present report demonstrates that T. cruzi can infect the renal parenchyma. This mode of transmission warrants in endemic areas of Chagas' disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The cure rates obtained with the different treatments presented the following ascending order: EOSA 12.5% (1/8), BZ 25.0% (2/8) and BZ EOSA 37.5% (3/8).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pseudotumor
  • […] of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weakness
  • These low rates are better explained by the weak efficiency of the stercorarian mode of transmission than a highly efficient adaptive immune response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypertension
  • The echocardiogram, which was normal preoperatively, showed dilated cardiac chambers, depressed left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction 35%) and moderate pulmonary hypertension.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Opportunities exist to decrease heterogeneity of clinical workup and improve evaluation of persons who screen positive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
CD4+ T Cells Decreased
  • CD4 T cells decreased with time in two patients and the lymphocyte proliferative response to T. cruzi was very low in all patients. These data suggest that T. cruzi infection may have a long silent course in immunosuppressed HIV patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Benznidazole treatment reduced the frequency of CD4 CD8 T cells and decreased the ratio of CD4 CD8low/CD4 CD8high subpopulations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At the age of 8 days, the neonate began treatment with 5-7.5 mg/kg/day of benznidazol, which was continued for 60 days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The other case had oesophageal candidiasis, which was treated with ketoconazole, a drug that had already been shown to be effective in the treatment of Chagas disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Quantitative-competitive PCR monitored the decrease of parasitic load during treatment and secondary prophylaxis with benznidazole.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • When compared with untreated control animals (UTC), the treatment with essential oil of S. aromaticum (EOSA) alone promoted reduction in 1/5 parameters derived from the parasitemia curve, whereas the treatments with BZ alone or in combination (BZ EOSA[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Early diagnosis of the clinical reactivation of Chagas' disease in human immunodeficiency virus- and Trypanosoma cruzi-coinfected persons is fundamental for a good prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This should be of relevance to disease prognosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Consequently, an associated reduction in therapeutic intervention and poor prognosis may occur due to this exacerbated disease state.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis depends upon the degree of heart variance. A variety of diagnostic methods have been used, but detection of antibodies to T. cruzi antigens remains the strongest method to diagnose infection.[ibl-international.com]

Etiology

  • The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In immunosuppressed individuals, as it occurs in the coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the central nervous system may be affected.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 21-year-old woman from the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil) underwent cadaveric donor liver transplantation in November 2005, due to cirrhosis of autoimmune etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, uses proline as its main carbon source, essential for parasite growth and stage differentiation in epimastigotes and amastigotes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The increase in Latin American immigrants in Europe and the USA requires greater epidemiological surveillance and appropriate diagnostic techniques for managing T. cruzi infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This represents the first report of TcBat infection in humans; the epidemiological consequences of this finding are discussed herein.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This manuscript summarizes the most widely used molecular tools to detect T. cruzi infection in different epidemiological and clinical scenarios. Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi infection via oral route results in outbreaks or cases of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in different Brazilian regions and poses a novel epidemiological scenario.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiological implications of this finding are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is an acute and chronic infection caused by the protozoan hemoflagellate.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • It is conceivable that neurogenic disturbances may be a contributory factor to the complications of the chronic phase of Chagas disease in at least 3 pathophysiological ways: A.[doi.org]
  • Pathophysiology of endothelin in the cardiovascular system. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61 : 391 -415. Nelson, D. P., S. B. Wechsler, T. Miura, A. Stagg, J. W. Newburger, J. E. Mayer, Jr., and E. J. Neufeld. 2002.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • We have previously proposed that local placental factors, such as the epithelial turnover of the trophoblast and the innate immune response initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), might prevent parasite infection and congenital transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Since the medications were effective in reducing the T. cruzi parasitaemia in both patients, they probably helped prevent the severe morbidity sometimes associated with Chagas disease, although the HIV infections still proved fatal in both cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Biological behavior of VD strain was studied in a mouse model of acute infection, resulting in high levels of parasitemia and mortality with a rapid clearence of bloodstream trypomastigotes when treated with BZ or NFX, preventing mortality and reducing[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed one adult female was positive for Trypanosoma cruzi via polymerase chain reaction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings may have implications for designing new strategies of control or prevention of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy by modulating the response to GCL. 2017 British Society for Immunology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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