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  • A healthy 35-year-old man presented with small eggs and a brownish lesion on the medial edge of his right big toe (Panel A). Two weeks before presentation, he had returned from a holiday trip to Brazil, where he had been barefoot.[doi.org]
  • For patients who present abroad treatment may be surgical excision or amputation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complications, though rare, may involve ulceration, gangrene, secondary infection, tetanus, and death. This burrowing flea is endemic to Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, and India.[web.stanford.edu]
  • But elsewhere, this parasitic flea causes an inflammatory skin disease called tungiasis, which can lead to gangrene, amputations and painful lesions.[globalhealthnow.org]
  • Complications Due to the secondary infection complications such as bacteremia, tetanus, and gangrene can occur. Submit a request for further information , a quotation or indicative cost.[privatehealth.co.uk]
  • If left untreated, secondary infections such as bacteremia, tetanus & gangrene can occur. Extreme itching will also be experienced by the affected individual. There are also discharges from the ulcer or bump.[signssymptoms.org]
  • Secondary bacterial infections, including tetanus and gangrene, are not uncommon with tungiasis. A, B: Gross lesions on a patient's foot caused by T. penetrans. Images are courtesy of Drs. Mohammed Asmal and Rocio M. Hurtado.[mcdinternational.org]
  • Most pre-Hispanic anthropologic evidence originates from Inca predecessors, ancient cultures of Peru that were technologically advanced and developed pottery many centuries before the collapse of the Incan civilization ( 10 ).[doi.org]
  • Patient 3 needed a blood transfusion due to severe anemia. All patients showed a characteristic pattern of pre-existing medical conditions and culture-dependent behavior facilitating continuous re-infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients 1 and 3 were cachectic, patient 2 presented severe malnutrition. Patient 3 needed a blood transfusion due to severe anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Limited Mobility
  • This ectoparasitosis, caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans, is associated with considerable longterm morbidity in severely affected patients, including toe deformation and limited mobility.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Eight were Gram negative namely Enterobacter cloacae (8.5%), Proteus species (8.5%), Klebsiellla species (6.4%), Aeromonas sobria (4.3%), Citrobacter species (4.3%), Proteus mirabillis(4.3%), Enterobacter amnigenus (2.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.1%[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Of the affected patients, 63% were male and 37% were female, 37% were aged 0-10 years, and 100% reported pain and pruritus. Lesions occurred on the feet in 93.3% and on the hands in 22.7% of affected patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms The symptoms of this disease include: Severe pruritus Pain Inflammation and swelling Lesions and ulcerations, with black dots in the center Left untreated, secondary infections such as bacteremia, tetanus, and gangrene can occur.[wikidoc.org]
  • .- ) Certain infectious and parasitic diseases Approximate Synonyms Tunga penetrans infestation Tungiasis Clinical Information An infestation with the flea tunga penetrans causing inflammation, pruritus, and pain, in both humans and other mammals.[icd10data.com]
  • The symptoms of this disease include: Severe pruritus Pain Inflammation and swelling Lesions and ulcerations, with black dots in the centerLeft untreated, secondary infections, such as bacteremia, tetanus, and gangrene, can occur.[en.wikipedia.org]
Unable to Walk
  • A patient may be unable to walk due to severe pain if too many of the lesions are present in the feet.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The participants of expeditions into Africa at the end of the 19 th and the beginning of the 20 th century reported natives and also themselves with severe infestation that made many of them almost unable to walk (GREY, 1901; KONCZAKI, 1985).[doi.org]


  • In endemic areas, tungiasis is readily recognized by experienced physicians during physical examination, and further diagnostic workup is usually not required.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • […] fleas infest an individual, physical debilitation and secondary infections, such as tetanus or gas gangrene, may occur.4,5 In endemic areas, tungiasis is readily recognized by experienced physicians during physical examination, and further diagnostic workup[the-medical-dictionary.com]
  • (See Epidemiology, Clinical, and Workup.) [2] To reproduce, the flea requires a warm-blooded host.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Furthermore, she had severe hyponatremia. We applied 20% salicylated petroleum jelly followed by the manual removal of embedded sand fleas with a sterile needle.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., Enteroccous faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas sp. were also isolated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Mothers were almost exclusively responsible for treatment and knowledge transfer to the next generation. The health sector neither provided health education nor treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Wearing shoes when walking outside and avoiding direct contact with sand and pebbles Removing sand and pebbles from inside or around homes and establishing a concrete foundation (if possible) Sleeping indoors and not on the bare ground/soil What is the Prognosis[dovemed.com]
  • Among females, the peak occurs in those aged 55 years and older. [40] In a village in northeastern Brazil, bimodal prevalence peaks were noted in children aged 5-9 years and in adults older than age 60 years. [32] Prognosis The prognosis of tungiasis[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • Knowledge about the etiological agent of tungiasis and its transmission was high in both communities: 90% knew the flea as the etiological agent of tungiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10coded.com]
  • Knowledge about the etiology of tungiasis and its transmission was high in surveyed communities, 97.8% of the surveyed population indicated to have experienced tungiasis at least once in their lifetime.[ajol.info]
  • .: Diseases of uncertain etiology and environmental diseases in tropics. In, "Tropical Pathology." Editors: H. Spencer, A. D. Dayan, J. B. Gibson, R. G. Huntsman, M. S. R. Hutt, G. C. Jenkins, F. Koberle, B. G. MacGraith and K. Salfelder.[jpgmonline.com]
  • (See Etiology.) [3, 4, 5, 6] Life cycle of Tunga penetrans - Fortaleza stages included. Compiled and designed by Fausto Bustos and Lucas Manfield.[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Case Overview TUNGIASIS Member Rated 0 Patient case no. 10642 Date added 04 August 2009 Patient details Age Adult Location Argentina Localisation Lower limbs / feet / toes Primary Lesions Cyst Translucent nodule Ulcer Pathophysiology infectious diseases[dermquest.com]
  • Future studies are needed to increase the knowledge on the biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, therapy and control of the ectoparasite.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Using appropriate study designs, it remains imperative to increase further the knowledge on the biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, therapy and control of the sand flea T. penetrans.[doi.org]
  • Thus, tetanus prophylaxis should be kept up to date in areas where tungiasis is common. [42] Pathophysiology The primary complicating factor of tungiasis infection is the bacterial superinfections that can result from loss of integrity of the skin structures[emedicine.medscape.com]


  • The aim of the present scrutiny was to assess the public health impact of tungiasis, associated risk factors, and emerging opportunities to prevent and control tungiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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