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Tunica Vaginalis Hydrocele


Presentation

  • Hypertrophied scars were present at base of the testis and suprapubic region [Figure 2].[urologyannals.com]
  • Dear Editor, We present the case of an 82-year-old male patient who attended our hospital emergency department complaining of pain and enlargement of his left scrotal sac.[scielo.br]
Inguinal Mass
  • Ultrasound examination of the inguinal mass was performed (Figure 1-3).[appliedradiology.com]
  • The omentum may become entrapped in a hernia, causing chronic abdominal pain with a persistent inguinal mass. In females, the ovary or fallopian tube can enter hernia sacs and become incarcerated or strangulated.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • Malignant mesothelioma is a diffuse mass that usually spreads widely in the pleural space and it is associated with extensive pleural effusion as well as direct invasion to thoracic structures besides metastatic spread 1; 2; 3.[webmedcentral.com]
Dyspnea
  • Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME A Trial of a Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis Case 10-2019: A 69-Year-Old Man with Progressive Dyspnea Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma Challenge Yourself Interactive[nejm.org]
Withdrawn
  • […] excision technique is intended to be used, having externalized it intact, the sac is cut open, frontally away from the testis, the epididymis, the vas deferens and the spermatic cord structures in an avascular area and hydrocele fluid samples may be withdrawn[pagniurologia.it]
Encephalopathy
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Case 3-2019: A 70-Year-Old Woman with Fever, Headache, and Progressive Encephalopathy Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Randomized[nejm.org]
Scrotal Mass
  • Left spermatic vain joining the left renal vein directly at a 90 angle Longer left spermatic vein with increased hydrostatic pressure Pressure of superior mesenteric artery on the left renal vein (Nutcracker phenomenon) 14 PRESENTATION Complaints of a scrotal[slideplayer.com]
  • Evaluation of the painless scrotal masses. Korean J Urol 1996;37:921–925.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • The presence of a painless scrotal mass associated with reactive and recurrent hydrocele - a feature observed in more prevalent and benign testicular conditions - makes it more difficult to suspect of a malignant etiology ( 1, 4 ).[scielo.br]
  • Algorithm of the likely diagnoses of a scrotal mass based on physical examination findings. Diagnosing Scrotal Masses Figure 1. Algorithm of the likely diagnoses of a scrotal mass based on physical examination findings. Figure 2.[aafp.org]
Scrotal Pain
  • Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis: presenting with intermittent scrotal pain and hydrocele. Case Rep Med. 2012;2012:189170. [ Links ] 5 Hai B, Yang Y, Xiao Y, et al.[scielo.br]
  • Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis: presenting with intermittent scrotal pain and hydrocele. Case Rep Med. 2012;2012:189170. 5. Hai B, Yang Y, Xiao Y, et al.[docksci.com]
  • Inability to fully examine the testis, or the presence of other signs and symptoms such as fever, scrotal pain, erythema or swelling, abdominal pain or incomplete transillumination are indications for scrotal ultrasonography.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • Acute Scrotal Pain and Swelling Epididymitis and Epididymo-orchitis A common cause of acute scrotal pain in adolescent boys and male adults is epididymitis, which is usually the result of an acute bacterial infection.[e-ultrasonography.org]
  • Case Study: Scrotal Pain in a Young Man [pdf] This document was amended in July 2016 to reflect literature that was released since the original publication of this content in May 2012.[auanet.org]
Testicular Mass
  • Microcalcifications associated with a testicular mass in a 32-year-old male with a non-tender left scrotal mass. A, B.[e-ultrasonography.org]
  • mass Open hydrocelectomy via scrotal incision is the standard approach for idiopathic hydrocele in adolescents Observation should be the initial approach in postvaricocelectomy hydrocele, unless the hydrocele is very large and tense Access options Access[nature.com]
  • Careful physical examination should include attention to the location of the swelling in relation to the normal anatomic structures within the scrotum, and transillumination to check for testicular masses.[aafp.org]
  • The structures within the scrotal sac are examined to detect extra testicular masses or other abnormalities. In patients with small palpable nodules, scans should include the area of clinical concern.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Testicular Pain
  • Diagnosis Features on history Features on exam Management Surgical Causes Testicular torsion Peak neonates and adolescents 13-16years Sudden onset unilateral testicular pain and swelling Pain usually constant May be pain in iliac fossa May follow minor[rch.org.au]
  • A 20-year-old male with left testicular pain.[e-ultrasonography.org]
  • CASE REPORT A 54 year-old male farmer was referred by his GP to our radiology department for a scrotal ultrasound to investigate a two week history of right testicular pain and swelling.[academic.oup.com]
  • Testicular torsion presents with the rapid onset of severe testicular pain and swelling. The onset of pain may be preceded trauma, physical activity, or by no activity (e.g. during sleep).[auanet.org]

Workup

  • The latter is the most common finding in children. 1–5 Inguinal hernia occurs 9 times more commonly in boys than in girls, with the majority occurring on the right (60%), left (25%), and 15% are bilateral. 6,7 Diagnosis and Workup Inguinal hernia Patients[ipeg.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • Malignant mesothelioma is a diffuse mass that usually spreads widely in the pleural space and it is associated with extensive pleural effusion as well as direct invasion to thoracic structures besides metastatic spread 1; 2; 3.[webmedcentral.com]

Treatment

  • TY - JOUR T1 - [The treatment of tunica vaginalis hydrocele by the Lord technic].[wwww.unboundmedicine.com]
  • , treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE.[dovemed.com]
  • Huggins C and Noonan W (2018) Spermatocele, Including its X-Ray Treatment Journal of Urology, VOL. 39, NO. 6, (784-790), Online publication date: 1-Jun-1938 .[auajournals.org]
  • High awareness of this entity may lead to earlier diagnosis and more timely and appropriate treatment, despite the unfavorable prognosis for treatment of secondary tumor of tunica vaginalis testis at present.[bjuinternational.com]

Prognosis

  • , treatment, prevention, prognosis, and additional useful information HERE.[dovemed.com]
  • High awareness of this entity may lead to earlier diagnosis and more timely and appropriate treatment, despite the unfavorable prognosis for treatment of secondary tumor of tunica vaginalis testis at present.[bjuinternational.com]
  • Diagnosis and prognosis of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012;6:E238-41. [ Links ] 6 Goel A, Agrawal A, Gupta R, et al.[scielo.br]

Etiology

  • 11 VARICOCELE Defined as an abnormal dilatation and distension of the veins of the pampiniform plexus 12 INCIDENCE 15% in the general population (8% - 23%) 16,3% in adolescents (12,4% - 25,8%) 33% in infertile men (19% - 41%) 58% - 93% left sided 13 ETIOLOGY[slideplayer.com]
  • The scrotal hydrocelectomy can also be practiced safely when the ultrasound examination is normal in younger patients with a clear etiology for the hydrocele.[pagniurologia.it]
  • The presence of a painless scrotal mass associated with reactive and recurrent hydrocele - a feature observed in more prevalent and benign testicular conditions - makes it more difficult to suspect of a malignant etiology ( 1, 4 ).[scielo.br]
  • The presence of a painless scrotal mass associated with reactive and recurrent hydrocele – a feature observed in more prevalent and benign testicular conditions – makes it more difficult to suspect of a malignant etiology(1,4).[docksci.com]
  • Etiology Among the many causes of hydrocele, the most common tends to be the disruption of the lymphatic system.[karger.com]

Epidemiology

  • Abdominal-scrotal hydrocele: fluid collection within processus vaginalis, extending into retroperitoneum Reactive hydrocele (noncommunicating): accumulation of fluid within tunica vaginalis caused by infection, trauma, or other inflammatory conditions Epidemiology[peds.unboundmedicine.com]
  • Epidemiology Clinically apparent scrotal hydroceles are evident in 6% of term males beyond the newborn period. Most paediatric hydroceles are congenital but rarer causes include malignancy and infection.[patient.info]
  • A reactive hydrocele can result from the following factors: Trauma Torsion Infection (eg, epididymo-orchitis) Abdominal or retroperitoneal operations that impair lymphatic drainage Epidemiology United States statistics The incidence of hernias is 10-20[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Clinical epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis. Effect of age and gender. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1991;85:260. [ PUBMED ] 2. Sivam NS, Jayanthi S, Ananthakrishnan N, Elango A, Yuvaraj J, Hoti SL, et al. Tropical vaginal hydroceles.[indianjurol.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] a patent processus vaginalis. [2] [3] [7] Patients with connective tissue disorders have a high risk of communicating hydroceles. [3] Outside the US, hydroceles may also be seen in patients with filariasis as a result of lymphatic obstruction. [14] Pathophysiology[online.epocrates.com]
  • Pathophysiology The testicles are anatomically found just below the kidneys in the peritoneal cavity during fetal development.[news-medical.net]
  • ., varicocelectomy, filariasis, pelvic radiation, malignancy) Pathophysiology Communicating hydrocele can become indirect inguinal hernia, with potential for incarceration. Noncommunicating hydrocele generally thought to be low clinical concern.[peds.unboundmedicine.com]
  • Pathophysiology During fetal development, the testicle is located below the kidney, within the peritoneal cavity.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1600 Clifton Rd.[dovemed.com]
  • Covering the full spectrum of health conditions seen in the primary care of children, Pediatric Primary Care, 5th Edition emphasizes both prevention and management from the unique perspective of the Nurse Practitioner.[books.google.de]
  • Considering that the tumor may be indistinguishable from other entities until histological confirmation, a radical orchiectomy is required in most cases in order to prevent late diagnosis.[scielo.br]
  • Prevention & Risk Assessment Prevention & Risk Assessment What are the symptoms of a hydrocele? The following are the most common symptoms of hydrocele. However, each child may experience symptoms differently.[childrensnational.org]

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