Ureteral stricture denotes stenosis of the ureteral lumen, most commonly due to iatrogenic causes, and symptoms of obstruction are most frequently observed.
The post-operative appearance of fever, flank abdominal pain, leukocytosis and even peritonitis are hallmarks of ureteral stricture and if such symptoms are present after gynecological or colorectal surgery, a high dose of clinical suspicion toward this disorder should be made .
Abdominal ultrasonography may be initially used to detect hydronephrosis that can suggest the presence of the stricture, but either cystoscopy or a retrograde pyelogram are recommended diagnostic procedures . CT-IVP is an alternative method to detect strictures, but the use of a contrast is necessary in this case .
Various procedures have been suggested, but endoureterotomy, balloon dilation, and open surgical repair are most commonly performed . The choice somewhat depends on the location of injury , however, as laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation has shown excellent results in managing distal strictures  , whereas robot-assisted ureteral reimplantation showed equal efficacy for both middle and distal strictures .
Between 50-70% of ureteral injuries are not diagnosed during procedures that caused it and require further diagnostic workup , but the prognosis is good with early recognition of injury.
Several causes have been recognized   :
It is estimated that gynecologic surgery is responsible for 75% of all ureteral iatrogenic injuries and estimated rates are 0.2 per 1000 cases in the setting of vaginal hysterectomy and 1.3 per 1000 cases for total abdominal hysterectomy . 9% of cases are seen after colorectal surgery, while less than 1% of cases are seen after renal procedures . Renal calculi and their descent through the ureter are recognized risk factors, as ureteral perforation was strongly correlated with the formation of a stricture at that site . Moreover, endourological treatment of ureteral stones is also described as a procedure that can induce stricture and between 14-24% of patients develop this complication .
Iatrogenic injury to the ureter can cause ischemia associated with fibrosis and scarring of the ureter, or other conditions such as renal calculi or congenital abnormalities are the underlying cause . These events, accompanied by narrowing of the ureteral lumen, induce typical signs and symptoms.
By far the most significant preventive strategy is avoiding ureteral injury, meaning that surgeons must pay attention not to damage the ureter when performing gynecological or colorectal surgery.
Ureteral stricture - pathological narrowing of the lumen of the ureter, is almost always induced by iatrogenic causes, with several forms of surgery (endoscopic/open) and renal transplantation being most frequently mentioned . Malignant tumors, congenital stricture, and certain infections are other notable causes , and symptoms such as abdominal pain, leukocytosis and a sense of fullness are primarily encountered . Cystoscopy or a retrograde pyelogram are recommended for the diagnosis of ureteral stricture, while computed tomography with intravenous pyelogram (CT-IVP) is a good alternative method . Endoureterotomy, balloon dilation and either laparoscopic or open reconstruction, which carries the highest success rates, may be performed in order to repair the stricture   .
Ureteral stricture is a term describing the pathological narrowing of the lumen of the ureter, which connects the kidneys and the bladder. In most cases, this condition is caused by damage of the ureter during surgical procedures (mainly gynecological and colorectal) or other diagnostic procedures in the abdominal area, such as endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include the post-operative development of fever, increased white blood cell count and abdominal pain with a sense of fullness. The diagnosis can be made by conducting imaging studies that will visualize the narrowed ureter and several surgical approaches exist. Depending on the location of stricture, both invasive (open surgery) or minimally invasive (endoscopic surgery) may be performed to repair the injury.