Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Urinary Calculus

Calculi Urinary


Presentation

  • Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After excluding those with isolated bladder or small asymptomatic renal stones, 303 patients were found to have symptomatic stone(s) as an explanation for their presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The results of biochemical analysis of 31 of these stones are presented. The possible role of Schistosoma haematobium in the causation of urinary stones has been analysed; associated schistosomiasis was diagnosed in 17 cases (41.4%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case of a 46-year-old nondiabetic man with the isolated finding of a gas-containing renal calculus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 32-year-old Somali woman presenting with type III female genital cutting complained of infertility, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and exquisite pain upon sitting. She underwent a defibulation procedure to create neolabia majora.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis Case 4-2019: An 18-Year-Old Man with Abdominal Pain and Hematochezia Bridging the Gap Challenge Yourself[nejm.org]
  • In addition, helical CT is better than US or IVU in detecting other causes of abdominal pain.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Signs and symptoms can vary from severe abdominal pain to blood in your urine. Sometimes, bladder stones don't cause any symptoms. Small bladder stones may pass without treatment, but some need medications or surgery.[mayoclinic.org]
Flushing
  • Several technical variants including grasping, fragmentation, flushing, and removal under direct vision have been used. In most cases, a combination of the different techniques has to be used in one patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hematuria
  • A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Manifestations of Acute Hydronephrosis Acute, colicky pain; may radiate into groin Hematuria, pyuria Fever Nausea, vomitting, abd pain Manifestations of Chronic Hydronephrosis Develops slowly Dull, aching flank pain Hematuria, pyuria, N&V, and ABD pain[quizlet.com]
  • They may cause pain, nausea, vomiting, hematuria, and, possibly, chills and fever due to secondary infection. Diagnosis is based on urinalysis and radiologic imaging, usually noncontrast helical CT.[msdmanuals.com]
  • A person may have an urge to urinate frequently and/or hematuria. They may cause urinary tract infections. They are not always painful and sometimes they are tracked down just by chance in Radiography or ultrasounds tests.[haysoluciones.com]
  • Similar results were demonstrated with dipstick urinalysis. 26% of patients without hematuria and suspected renal colic proved to have ureterolithiasis. 40% of patients with haematuria and suspected renal colic did not have calculi.The study is is retrospective[bestbets.org]
Flank Pain
  • A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • flank pain referred for unenhanced helical CT.[bestbets.org]
  • KIDNEY: Asymptomatic, dull, aching flank pain, microscopic hematuria, manifestations of UTI URETERAL: Renal colic- Acute flank pain on affected side; often radiates to suprapubic region, groin, and external genitals.[quizlet.com]
  • Unenhanced helical computed tomography vs intravenous urography in patients with acute flank pain: Accuracy and economic impact in a randomized prospective trial. Eur. Radiol. 13, 2513–2520 (2003). 5. Smith, R.[nature.com]
Dysmenorrhea
  • A 32-year-old Somali woman presenting with type III female genital cutting complained of infertility, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and exquisite pain upon sitting. She underwent a defibulation procedure to create neolabia majora.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspareunia
  • A 32-year-old Somali woman presenting with type III female genital cutting complained of infertility, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and exquisite pain upon sitting. She underwent a defibulation procedure to create neolabia majora.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Oliguria
  • 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Type 1 Excludes anuria and oliguria complicating abortion or ectopic or molar pregnancy ( O00 - O07, O08.4 ) anuria and oliguria complicating pregnancy ( O26.83- ) anuria and oliguria complicating the puerperium[icd10data.com]

Workup

  • Current guidelines for patient workup begin with a complete history to identify risk factors, followed by laboratory investigations and where a stone is available, to determine its composition 3.[nature.com]
  • Diagnosis [ edit ] Diagnostic workup varies by the stone type, but in general: Clinical history and physical examination Imaging studies Some stone types (mainly those with substantial calcium content) can be detected on X-ray and CT scan Many stone types[en.wikipedia.org]
Nephrolithiasis
  • (Nephrolithiasis; Stones; Urolithiasis) By Glenn M. Preminger, MD, James F.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Nevertheless, nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis, and molecular and genetic basis of stones as well as their prevention, remains rudimentary. All large calculi were once small calculi.[books.google.com]
  • […] core composition; cystine; dried blood; magnesium ammonium phosphate; newberyite; sodium uric acid; triamterene; uric acid; uric acid dihydrate; color; size; weight Use Evaluate stone composition, metabolic factors affecting stone formation; work up nephrolithiasis[labcorp.com]
  • Long LO, Park S (2007) Update on nephrolithiasis management. Minerva Urol Nefrol 59: 317–325. View Article Google Scholar 5.[journals.plos.org]

Treatment

  • Twenty-one of the 30 patients passed their stones within 30 days of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of this article was to summarize clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of infants with urinary calculus and acute renal failure developed after being fed with melamine tainted formula milk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Appropriate evaluation of urinary metabolic parameters can lead us to proper diagnosis and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A data-treatment method was applied for each system and real samples of kidney stones--previously analyzed by IR spectroscopy--were used for reliable evaluation of two identification strategies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • It was observed that the short-term prognosis was satisfactory.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment and prognosis Indications for surgical management include: larger stones, typically those above 5mm in size extended duration of symptoms location of stone, with proximal calculi less likely to spontaneously pass infection or septic features[radiopaedia.org]

Etiology

  • Urinary tract obstruction induced by a calculus seems to be the only etiologic factor in this case, although the multifactorial nature of this lesion has been stressed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Studies on the etiology of urolithiasis in Karachi. Am. 3. Clin. Nutr., 1971; 24:32. 17. Zechner, 0., Latal, D., Pfluger, H. and Scheiber, V.Nutritional risk factors in urinary stone disease. 3. Urol.,1981;125: 51.[jpma.org.pk]
  • Clinical history and physical examination Imaging studies Some stone types (mainly those with substantial calcium content) can be detected on X-ray and CT scan Many stone types can be detected by ultrasound Factors contributing to stone formation (as in #Etiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • UC has two etiological characterizations, the primary being metabolic and the secondary including anatomic, infectious, medication related, and disease related causes.[journals.plos.org]
  • Uric acid Hyperuricosuria is not always associated with hyperuricemia and is seen in a variety of settings (see above), although in most instances uric acid stones occur in patients with no identifiable underlying etiology 6 .[radiopaedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract An epidemiological survey of urinary calculous disease has been carried out in Nigeria. This involved the use of questionnaires, personal interview of doctors and clinical and autopsy reviews in several large medical centres in the country.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] patients with urinary calculus and acute renal failure due to melamine tainted formula milk admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Medical University and the Xuzhou Children's Hospital in 2008 were used to analyze the epidemiological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Muir CS, Nectoux J, Staszewski J (1991) The epidemiology of prostate cancer. Geographical distribution and time trends. Acta Oncol 30: 133–140. View Article Google Scholar 9.[journals.plos.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • INTRODUCTION: We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, interest in disease prevention continues to grow and understanding basic questions and the underlying pathophysiology of stone disease will help optimize management strategies.[books.google.com]
  • Uric acid is the second most common mineral type, but an in vitro study showed uric acid stones and crystals can promote the formation of calcium oxalate stones. [1] Pathophysiology and symptoms [ edit ] Stones can cause disease by several mechanisms:[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Sakhaee K, Adams-Huet B, Moe OW, Pak CY (2002) Pathophysiologic basis for normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int 62: 971–979. View Article Google Scholar 19.[journals.plos.org]
  • Abstract Accurate determination of urinary stone composition has significant bearing on understanding pathophysiology, choosing treatment modalities and preventing recurrence. A need exists for improved methods to determine stone composition.[nature.com]

Prevention

  • In addition, interest in disease prevention continues to grow and understanding basic questions and the underlying pathophysiology of stone disease will help optimize management strategies.[books.google.com]
  • This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Meds to inhibit or prevent lithiasis * thiazide diuretic - for calcium calculi, reduce urinary calcium excretion.[quizlet.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!