Urinary stress incontinence is the involuntary passage of small amounts of urine due to transient episodes of raised intraabdominal pressure. This can occur when patients cough, sneeze or lift heavy objects. There are numerous predisposing factors.
Urinary stress incontinence (USI) is the passage of urine done without conscious control especially in the case of increased abdominal pressure. Typically, the urine passed is minimal. The cause behind this condition is poorly understood, although there are a number of factors that put individuals at a greater risk of developing USI. Women are more affected by this condition than men, and some of the risk factors specific to the former include pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and menopause   . Risk factors that apply to both men and women include obesity, chronically raised intraabdominal pressure as found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), urethral injury, pelvic surgery and smoking   .
USI occurs when there is an abrupt increase in intraabdominal pressure, usually when coughing, laughing, sneezing, lifting heavy objects, or during physical exertion such as sports. Irritative voiding symptoms such as frequency and urgency, are not part of the clinical picture, and if present, may be indicative of an overactive bladder. The additional presence of hematuria may be a sign of bladder cancer.
USI may arise from a defect in the urethral sphincter, or from the urethra itself. If the urethral sphincter is responsible, symptoms are typically more pronounced, exemplified by urine passage during the action of standing up, or continuous dribbling. The features may be similar to those of a fistula, which if suspected, may be investigated.
Physical examination, of the genitals, pelvis, and rectum, and a urinary stress test are routinely done in the investigation of USI. A history of stress symptoms alone is not adequate for diagnosis, nor is it an indication for surgery .
There are many studies available for the investigation of urinary incontinence. A combination of a history of stress incontinence, a postvoid residual volume of less than 50 milliliters, a positive cough test and bladder capacity of more than 400 milliliters, has been suggested in the literature, for greater efficiency in the diagnosis of USI. This may be followed by more extensive urinary studies.
Initial investigations involve voiding diaries, pad test, urinalysis, and ultrasound. Further modalities include urodynamic and contrasted radiological studies of the urogenital tract.
Urodynamic studies need not be carried out on every patient, however, they are important if surgical intervention is planned . This is because the former is able to objectively demonstrate the presence of urinary stress incompetence. It is also recommended that the above studies be carried out in patients with prior failed therapy, and if neuropathy is suspected.
Among the urodynamic studies that can be done are post-void urine volume, filling cystometry, and uroflow. More extensive exams include video-urodynamic studies. These tests are important in planning treatment, predicting its outcome and delineating possible reasons for treatment failure.
After 3 months of HCl duloxetine treatment the mean ALPP was 59.1 cm H(2)O, the mean MUCP was 67.3 cm H(2)O and the mean RLPP was 45.1 cm H(2)O. There was a statistically significant correlation among RLPP, MUCP and ALPP before treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The prognosis of this tumor is excellent and no malignant degeneration has been reported. The most common presentations are obstructive voiding symptoms, irritative symptoms, and hematuria. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Outlook (Prognosis) Getting better takes time, so try to be patient. Symptoms most often get better with nonsurgical treatments. However, they will not cure stress incontinence. Surgery can cure some people of stress incontinence. [pennmedicine.org]
Good prognosis is associated with young age, good physical health and a BMI within normal limits. [patient.info]
What Is the Prognosis of Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence is a treatable condition with an excellent prognosis. Medical and surgical treatments for urinary incontinence can have very high cure rates. [emedicinehealth.com]
High-impact activity (e.g., jumping, running, hopping) Menopause Obesity Smoking Chronic cough (e.g., COPD) Prostate or pelvic surgery See also “Etiology” of urinary incontinence. [amboss.com]
The etiology of the incontinence may be iatrogenic, environmental, situational, or disease related. [emedicine.medscape.com]
ETIOLOGY There are several factors believed to cause or promote SUI or lead to decompensation resulting in SUI ( Table 1 ). [glowm.com]
The etiology of the initial surgical failure (intrinsic sphincter dysfunction [ISD], recurrent hypermobility, obstruction, instability) should be understood before undertaking a repair. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology References: Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified. [amboss.com]
No difference in epidemiologic and preoperative urinary functional status (SUI stage, and pollakiuria, nocturia, and urgency rates) was found between the groups. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Design: A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. [erj.ersjournals.com]
Month Cumulative Success Rate Computed From Kaplan Meier Time-to-event Analysis (Reported as Percent Success). [ Time Frame: Two years ] Success defined as composite measure including: no self-reported incontinence symptoms reported on the Medical, Epidemiologic [clinicaltrials.gov]
This article focuses on the pathophysiology of genuine or urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) and its surgical management. Until now more than 200 surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of USI. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pathophysiology • Urethral hypermobility (80%) Due to descent of the bladder neck and proximal urethra. • Intrinsic Sphincter deficiency (20%) 5. [slideshare.net]
Pathophysiology and management. London: Butterworths, 1985; pp. 112–128 Google Scholar 23. Shafik A. The posterior approach in the treatment of pudendal canal syndrome. Coloproctology 1992; 14:310–315 Google Scholar 24. Warwick R, Williams PL. [link.springer.com]
Urge incontinence pathophysiology Urge incontinence is involuntary urine loss associated with a feeling of urgency. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Fast twitch muscle fibers are very important to prevent sudden stress situations and prevent loss of control. [medfaxxinc.com]
It normally maintains a tight seal thanks to the sphincter muscle surrounding the urethra, to prevent involuntary loss of urine. [incostress.co.uk]
By doing so, the weight of the abdominal contents pressing against the pelvic floor is lessened and prevents the pelvic floor from weakening further. Eat a diet rich in fibre and drink between 1.5 - 2 oz of fluids per day. [kkh.com.sg]
At times when it's not appropriate to urinate, the brain sends back an inhibitory signal to keep the sphincters closed and prevent voiding. [youtube.com]
"Surgery TVT-O" group reported a higher rate of major complications (p CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative SUI prevention at the time of prolapse repair remains a challenging issue. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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