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Urinary Tract Infection

UTI

A urinary tract infection is an infection of one or more structures of the urinary tract. Polyuria and dysuria are common symptoms.


Presentation

Population at increased risk

People who have obstructed urinary tract conditions such as kidney-stone or with a history of having incomplete bladder emptying (spinal cord injury, bladder decompensation etc.) are at a higher risk of developing the UTI. Suppression of the immune system (HIV/AIDS patients or patients with diabetes), and use of immunosuppressant medications can also increase the risk of developing a UTI several-fold. Catherization and Hospital-admission increases the risk of all types of infection including UTI [3].

Women: Sexually active women, women who use diaphragm as a birth-control measure are at increased of developing UTI [5].

Men: Though men are less likely to develop UTI, an enlarged prostate can lead to incomplete bladder emptying making them prone to such infections.

Infants: In this group of patients, the bacteria can also gain entry to urinary tract through the bloodstream from other infected sites of the body.

Young Children: Children have difficulty in wiping or cleaning them after the bowel movement. Thus, poor hygiene is linked to increase in the frequency of UTI.

Clinical presentation

Musculoskeletal: There is a constant mild or moderate pain in the pelvic region of women. Among men, similar pain is observed in the rectal region.

Neurological: In patients with UTI most frequently suffer from confusion and drowsiness. In some patients, gait disturbance is also observed.

Urogenital: Some of the urogenital features of the UTI are dysuria, frequent urination, urinary urgency, and abdominal pain. There can be new incontinence or worsening of the pre-existing incontinence in patients with UTI.

  • Dysuria: This causes discomfort when contraction occurs during voiding. Dysuria occurs due to acute inflammation
  • Increased frequency of urination: The reduced bladder capacity due to edema (because of inflammation) can increase the frequency of urination and pain due to bladder distension.
  • Chills, sweats and fever: UTI activates the inflammatory cascade, causing the febrile response.
  • Pain in flank: There can be a sudden renal edema causing an increase in pressure and capsular distention causing intense pain in the flank that can radiate to the groin.
Pain
  • Read more about this product Janeyy2316 4 months ago My life saver UTI pain doesn’t feel like common pain. So don’t waste your time with common pain relievers. AZO Urinary Pain Relief relieves pain, burning and urgency fast.[azoproducts.com]
  • Pain: Pelvic pain and rectal pain is observed in women and men suffering from UTI respectively. Treatment of UTI depends on the extent of the infection.[symptoma.com]
  • When to Call the Doctor Call your doctor immediately if your child has an unexplained fever with shaking chills, especially if there's also back pain or any type of pain when peeing.[kidshealth.org]
  • Other Causes of Painful Urination What are other possible causes of painful urination? A painful burning feeling when you urinate is often a sign of a urinary tract infection (sometimes also called a bladder infection).[familydoctor.org]
  • Other severe and less common side effects include new signs of infection (for example, fever and persistent sore throat ), eye pain, vision changes, mood changes, easy bruising/bleeding, and pain/numbness/burning/tingling/weakness in any part of the body[rxlist.com]
Fever
  • In babies, the most common signs include fever, irritability, vomiting and diarrhea, poor feeding, and failure to gain weight, but most babies will just have a high fever without any other.[childrenshospitaloakland.org]
  • […] if your infant has a fever, feeds poorly, vomits repeatedly, or seems unusually irritable.[kidshealth.org]
  • Fever may be a component of urethritis-related syndromes (eg, Reiter syndrome, Behçet syndrome) but rarely is observed in acute cystitis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • She still had a fever, didn't eat much, and became listless.[parents.com]
  • If your child has a fever or is vomiting and unable to keep fluids down, the antibiotics may be put directly into the bloodstream or muscle using a needle. This is usually done in the hospital.[healthychildren.org]
Chills
  • Fevers, chills, and malaise may be noted in patients with cystitis, though these findings are associated more frequently with upper UTI (ie, pyelonephritis).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • When to Call the Doctor Call your doctor immediately if your child has an unexplained fever with shaking chills, especially if there's also back pain or any type of pain when peeing.[kidshealth.org]
  • Serious side effects include fever, yellowing skin or eyes, easy bruising or bleeding, dark or bloody urine , change in the amount of urine, abdominal pain , vomiting, chills , unusual tiredness , shortness of breath , fast heartbeat, and seizures.[rxlist.com]
  • Back or flank pain around the level of the lower ribs, usually one-sided Fever and chills Nausea If you are experiencing any of these symptoms call Health Services at 978-665-3216 for an appointment.[fitchburgstate.edu]
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
  • Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physician . 2010; 82(6):638-643. Scholes D, Hooten TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Young Women.[labtestsonline.org]
  • Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Canadian Urological Association Journal; 5(5): 316-322. Tamara G.[womenshealth.gov]
  • Charnow, Editor October 05, 2017 Kidney transplant recipients who experience recurrent urinary tract infections are at increased risk of graft failure and death. Drug Approved for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections By Jody A.[renalandurologynews.com]
  • Twenty percent of women in the United States develop a UTI and 20% of those have a recurrence. Urinary tract infections in children are more common in those under the age of 2.[auncurology.com]
  • "Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections". Minerva Urol Nefrol . 65 (1): 9–20. PMID 23538307 . Pallett, A.; Hand, K. (Nov 2010).[en.wikipedia.org]
Malaise
  • Fevers, chills, and malaise may be noted in patients with cystitis, though these findings are associated more frequently with upper UTI (ie, pyelonephritis).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Dysuria Urinary urgency and frequency A sensation of bladder fullness or lower abdominal discomfort Suprapubic tenderness Flank pain and costovertebral angle tenderness (may be present in cystitis but suggest upper UTI) Bloody urine Fevers, chills, and malaise[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] with only a small amount of urine Urinary urgency : the sensation of having to urinate urgently Cloudy, bad-smelling, or bloody urine Lower abdominal pain or pelvic pressure or pain Mild fever (less than 101 F), chills , and "just not feeling well" (malaise[medicinenet.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Serious side effects include fever, yellowing skin or eyes, easy bruising or bleeding, dark or bloody urine , change in the amount of urine, abdominal pain , vomiting, chills , unusual tiredness , shortness of breath , fast heartbeat, and seizures.[rxlist.com]
  • In older children, common signs include burning or pain with urination, frequent or urgent urination, fever, lower abdominal pain, new or more frequent incontinence, side or back pain, or blood in the urine.[childrenshospitaloakland.org]
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain , a strong urge to urinate, burning pain with urination, and cloudy urine. Treatment for UTI includes taking medication.[goodrx.com]
  • pain side or back pain foul-smelling urine cloudy or bloody urine unexplained and persistent irritability in an infant poor growth in an infant Treatment UTIs are treated with antibiotics.[healthychildren.org]
  • There may also be blood in the urine, lower abdominal pain or fever. UTIs are much more common in women than in men but can occur in both sexes and at any age. Pregnant women and people with diabetes may also be more likely to get UTIs.[cnn.com]
Constipation
  • Constipation often makes it hard for children to empty their bladder all the way, because stool in the colon can block the normal flow of urine.[cincinnatichildrens.org]
  • Being constipated makes it difficult to empty your bladder all the way, which means trapped bacteria have lots of time to grow and cause infection, says Hawes. (Here's how to never be constipated again .) [prevention.com]
  • In children with chronic constipation, treatment of the constipation and chronic prevention of constipation will reduce UTI recurrence. Genetic counseling is not applicable to urinary tract infections.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Fluids also help prevent constipation , which would make a UTI more likely. If your baby has started solids , offer plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, which also help prevent constipation.[babycenter.com]
  • We will ask that he empties his bladder on a routine schedule, increases the amount of water he drinks, and monitors bowel movements for any signs of constipation.[chop.edu]
Lower Abdominal Pain
  • In older children, common signs include burning or pain with urination, frequent or urgent urination, fever, lower abdominal pain, new or more frequent incontinence, side or back pain, or blood in the urine.[childrenshospitaloakland.org]
  • There may also be blood in the urine, lower abdominal pain or fever. UTIs are much more common in women than in men but can occur in both sexes and at any age. Pregnant women and people with diabetes may also be more likely to get UTIs.[cnn.com]
  • Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment The symptoms of UTI can include: Pain or burning with urination Lower abdominal pain or pressure The need to urinate frequently The urine may look cloudy or darker in color or it may appear bloody A fever, flank[ucsfhealth.org]
  • abdominal pain or pelvic pressure or pain Mild fever (less than 101 F), chills , and "just not feeling well" (malaise) Urethra (urethritis): Burning with urination Upper urinary tract infection (pyelonephritis, or kidney infection) Symptoms develop rapidly[medicinenet.com]
  • abdominal pain, and incontinence.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
Suprapubic Pain
  • Cystitis (bladder infection) symptoms include suprapubic pain, usually without fever and flank pain. Ureter and kidney infections often have flank pain and fever as symptoms.[rxlist.com]
  • A clean-catch urine sample was also collected, and a clinical (symptomatic) UTI was diagnosed by the investigator on the basis of 1 of the following symptoms: dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, or suprapubic pain in the absence of other potential[ajcn.nutrition.org]
Low Back Pain
  • Also call if your child has any of the following: bad-smelling, bloody, or discolored pee low back pain or belly pain (especially below the belly button) a fever of over 101 F (38.3 C) in children or 100.4 F (38 C) rectally in infants Call the doctor[kidshealth.org]
  • back pain or other aches Feeling “lousy” or tired UTI Signs Sediment (gritty particles) or mucus in the urine or cloudy urine Bad smelling urine (foul odor) Blood in urine (pink or red urine) Note : The appearance and smell of your urine may change because[sci-info-pages.com]
  • The symptoms of dysuria, urgency, hesitancy, polyuria, and incomplete voids may be accompanied by urinary incontinence, gross hematuria, and suprapubic or low back pain. Patients may demonstrate some suprapubic tenderness to palpation.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Abdominal and low back pain. Vomiting and abdominal pain (usually in infants).[sutterhealth.org]
Dysuria
  • Polyuria and dysuria are common symptoms.[symptoma.com]
  • Acute Urethritis Versus Cystitis The symptoms of acute urethritis overlap with those of cystitis, including acute dysuria and urinary hesitancy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • AFP BY TOPIC Editors' Choice of Best Available Content This collection features the best content from AFP , as identified by the AFP editors, on urinary tract infections/dysuria and related issues, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, bladder infections[aafp.org]
  • […] causes the lining of the urinary tract to become red and irritated, which may produce some of the following symptoms: Pain in the flank (side), abdomen or pelvic area Pressure in the lower pelvis Frequent need to urinate (frequency) Painful urination (dysuria[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • On the other hand, the combination of vaginal discharge or irritation without dysuria has a low LR (0.3). 21 Physicians should also maintain a high index of suspicion for underlying sexually transmitted infections (STI).[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
Cloudy Urine
  • Pain or burning during urination Pressure in the lower pelvis Frequent need to urinate Cloudy urine Blood in the urine Foul smelling urine Other symptoms can include painful sexual intercourse, pain in the side and mental confusion.[parkview.com]
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain , a strong urge to urinate, burning pain with urination, and cloudy urine. Treatment for UTI includes taking medication.[goodrx.com]
  • Symptoms of UTIs include a burning sensation while urinating, frequent urination, painful urination, passing very little urine even when you have a strong urge to go, pain in the pelvic region or back, foul-smelling or cloudy urine, and fever or chills[stmaryhealthcare.org]
  • Other UTI symptoms include: pain or burning when you pee bad-smelling or cloudy urine blood or pus in your urine soreness, pressure, or cramps in your lower belly, back, or sides If the infection goes to your kidneys, your UTI symptoms may also include[plannedparenthood.org]
  • urine) Blood in the urine Strong or foul-smelling urine Other symptoms that may be associated with a urinary tract infection include: Pain during sex Penis pain Flank (side of the body) pain Fatigue Fever (temperature above 100oF) Chills Vomiting Mental[my.clevelandclinic.org]
Flank Pain
  • Back or flank pain around the level of the lower ribs, usually one-sided Fever and chills Nausea If you are experiencing any of these symptoms call Health Services at 978-665-3216 for an appointment.[fitchburgstate.edu]
  • pain, nausea or vomiting accompanying any of these symptoms could signal that the infection has reached the kidneys, and you should seek immediate medical attention.[ucsfhealth.org]
  • Part of urinary tract affected Signs and symptoms Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis) Upper back and side (flank) pain High fever Shaking and chills Nausea Vomiting Bladder (cystitis) Pelvic pressure Lower abdomen discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood[mayoclinic.org]
  • Because signs and symptoms are quite broad, other conditions that result in fever, abdominal or flank pain, anorexia, and nausea/vomiting can mimic a UTI.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Foul Smelling Urine
  • Symptoms may include: In babies: Fever Abdominal pain Abdominal fullness Foul-smelling urine Poor growth Weight loss or failure to gain weight Irritability Vomiting Poor feeding Diarrhea Older children: Urgency to urinate Incontinence during day and/or[stanfordchildrens.org]
  • Pain or burning during urination Pressure in the lower pelvis Frequent need to urinate Cloudy urine Blood in the urine Foul smelling urine Other symptoms can include painful sexual intercourse, pain in the side and mental confusion.[parkview.com]
  • A strong and frequent need to urinate A burning sensation on urination Pain in lower belly or back Cloudy, bloody and/or foul smelling urine If left untreated, a UTI can progress upward and develop into a kidney infection.[fitchburgstate.edu]
  • Pressure in the lower pelvis Frequent need to urinate (frequency) Painful urination (dysuria) Urgent need to urinate (urgency) Incontinence (urine leakage) The need to urinate at night Abnormal urine color (cloudy urine) Blood in the urine Strong or foul-smelling[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • […] pain or burning during urination need to urinate more often, or difficulty getting urine out urgent need to urinate, or wetting of underwear or bedding by a child who knows how to use the toilet vomiting, refusal to eat abdominal pain side or back pain foul-smelling[healthychildren.org]
Urinary Incontinence
  • UTIs are also more common in women who do not have good bladder control (called urinary incontinence) or those who have problems emptying their bladder completely.[cnn.com]
  • incontinence Enlarged prostate Immobility (for example, those who must lie in bed for extended periods of time) Surgery of any area around the bladder Kidney stones People with incontinence are at an increased risk for UTIs because of the close contact[agingcare.com]
  • incontinence ; fever and chills; nausea and vomiting; and pain, tenderness or heaviness in the lower abdomen, pelvic area, or in the back below the ribs. urinary tract infections can also fail to produce symptoms.[urology.ucla.edu]
  • In elderly, UTI may present only as urinary incontinence, without any other symptoms. Urine dipstick test: This test shows the positive nitrate and/or leukocyte esterase indicating the probability of UTI.[symptoma.com]
  • The symptoms of dysuria, urgency, hesitancy, polyuria, and incomplete voids may be accompanied by urinary incontinence, gross hematuria, and suprapubic or low back pain. Patients may demonstrate some suprapubic tenderness to palpation.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Confusion
  • Some older adults with a UTI also develop confusion. The tricky part Some of these UTI symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other conditions common in older people.[health.harvard.edu]
  • Confusion Tied to Antibiotics Rx in Nursing Home Residents With UTI January 25, 2018 Confusion independently associated with receipt of antibiotics for UTI in nursing home residents.[renalandurologynews.com]
  • Pain or burning during urination Pressure in the lower pelvis Frequent need to urinate Cloudy urine Blood in the urine Foul smelling urine Other symptoms can include painful sexual intercourse, pain in the side and mental confusion.[parkview.com]
  • Fever, feeling sick in general, confused, tired, shaky or just out-of-it. If your doctor suspects you have an infection, they will ask you for a urine specimen which will be tested in a laboratory. Taking antibiotics for a prescribed amount of time.[margarettietz.org]
  • If an elderly patient comes to the hospital because they are confused and not feeling well, it's important that doctors rule out common problems (such as UTI) first, before they start treatment for other, less common problems, Shah said.[livescience.com]

Workup

Diagnosis of UTI

  • While the location of UTI can help to classify the type of infection, it is very difficult to determine the extent of infection just based on the symptoms.
  • In elderly, UTI may present only as urinary incontinence, without any other symptoms.
  • Urine dipstick test: This test shows the positive nitrate and/or leukocyte esterase indicating the probability of UTI [5].
  • A positive urine culture is the true diagnostic test for UTI. The urine culture must be performed in the setting of the clinical infection as asymptomatic bacteriuria is common and does not need any treatment [6].

These tests may be indicated in UTI:

  • Urine analysis: This test is performed to check the presence of bacteria by chemical tests such as the presence of nitrites in the urine.
  • Complete blood count (CBC) and blood culture are also done in some cases.
  • Clean catch” urine culture can be done to identify the bacteria and its sensitivity to the antibiotics for treatment.
  • Imaging: Sometimes CT scan for abdomen, kidney scan and ultrasound, and Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) may also be required to assess the extent of infection.
Renal Calculi
  • Factors associated with an unfavorable prognosis include the following: Old age General debility Renal calculi or obstruction Recent hospitalization Urinary tract instrumentation or antibiotic therapy Diabetes mellitus Chronic nephropathy Sickle cell[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pyuria
  • In most cases, when true UTI has been reported to occur in the absence of pyuria, the definition of pyuria has been at fault.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
  • Secondary and exploratory outcome variables included the incidence density for a clinical UTI with pyuria, the time from random assignment to a first clinical UTI, the time from random assignment to a first clinical UTI with pyuria, and the time from[ajcn.nutrition.org]
  • Cranberry Products Don't Prevent UTIs November 02, 2016 The researchers found no significant difference in the percent of women who had bacteriuria plus pyuria among those taking cranberry capsules or placebo. more »[renalandurologynews.com]
  • The dipstick leukocyte esterase test is a rapid screening test for pyuria.[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Pyuria and elevated bacterial colony counts are seen in all patients in whom a catheter has been in place for more than a few days.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pseudomonas
  • Bacteria that are rare causes of UTIs but that may be involved in severe infections include Proteus mirabilis and organisms in the genera Klebsiella , Mycoplasma , Enterococcus , Pseudomonas , and Serratia .[britannica.com]
  • Calculi related to UTIs most commonly occur in women who experience recurrent UTIs with Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Providencia species.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] aeruginosa Pseudomonas infection Moraxella catarrhalis Acinetobacter baumannii Xanthomonadaceae Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Cardiobacteriaceae Cardiobacterium hominis HACEK Aeromonadales Aeromonas hydrophila / Aeromonas veronii Aeromonas infection ε[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The bacteria involved are typically those found in the gastrointestinal tract, with E. coli most common, followed by Klebsiella , Proteus, and Pseudomonas . Skin pathogens such as Enterococcus and Staphylococcus can also be seen.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • […] patients with uncomplicated UTI. 18 It causes around 85% of community-acquired infections and approximately 50% of nosocomial infections. 16 Other gram-negative microorganisms causing UTI include Proteus , Klebsiella , Citrobacter , Enterobacter , and Pseudomonas[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

Treatment

Treatment of UTI depends on the extent of the infection

Mild kidney infections: In mild cases, following an antibiotic regimen for 3 days (women) or 7 - 14 days (men) can benefit the patient. In patients who are pregnant or suffer from diabetes, one must take antibiotics for 7 - 14 days. Drinking plenty of water can help flush the bacteria out of the system.

Severe kidney infections: In severe infections, the patient may have to get admitted to the hospital to receive intravenous fluids and antibiotics for immediate relief. The chances of such visits increase if the patient is elderly; have kidney stones, cancer, diabetes, spinal cord injury or other medical problems.

Recurrent bladder infections: Women must take antibiotics after the sexual contact and clean the pubic region with water. They can also take a single daily dose of an antibiotic to prevent infections.

Chronic UTI: In these cases, UTI persists even after taking antibiotics; such patients must take stronger antibiotics to combat the menace of UTI [7]. Surgery is advised if the infection has affected the anatomy of the excretory system.

Antibiotics that are frequently used to manage UTI are as follows [9]:

  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Nitrofurantoin

Prognosis

Most of the infections of the urinary tract can be treated successfully. The symptoms of UTI generally resolve with 24 to 48 hours after the initiation of the treatment. For severe infections, relief can come only after 7 days of treatment.

Etiology

Though urine is generally sterile, when the infection begins, it starts at the opening of the urethra (the place from where the urine leaves the body) and moves upwards in the urinary tract. In 90% of the cases, the culprit of the uncomplicated infection is a type of bacteria called Escherichia coli, which normally lives in the colon and around the anus [2].

These bacteria can easily move around the anus and urethra. The most common causes of UTI are poor hygiene and sexual intercourse. Emptying of the bladder can help flush out the bacteria from the urethra. However, some bacteria can travel up the urethra to the bladder and grow, causing the infection. When the infection spreads further, these bacteria can even reach the kidney, which is a very serious condition, if not treated promptly.

Other species that cause UTI include Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

Epidemiology

Though UTI is more common in adults than in children, the latter is more likely to suffer from its serious form and often get ignored. It is estimated that about 1-2% of the children suffer from UTI.

These infections are more common in women and girls younger than 50 years than their male counterparts, probably due to the anatomic differences between the genders. It is estimated that about 40% women and 12% men have suffered from UTI at least once in their life-time [1].

Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

The following stages can explain the pathogenesis of UTI in humans:

  • Colonization: Bacteria colonize in the urethral region of the urinary system. In the absence of proper hygiene, they continue to grow and ascend into the bladder.
  • Uroepithelium penetration: Bladder forms the safe haven for the multiplication of the bacteria. After the penetration of the bacteria, they rapidly replicate and may also form a biofilm.
  • Ascension: Once there is sufficient colonization and penetration of bacteria, they may ascend the ureters towards the kidney. Fimbria present in this region helps the bacteria to ascend. The bacterial toxins also cause reverse peristalsis in this region, inhibiting the flow of urine.
  • Pyelonephritis: When the bacteria reach the renal parenchyma of the kidney, they cause an inflammatory response called pyelonephritis
  • Acute kidney injury (AKI): If the treatment is not initiated, the bacteria can reach the renal tubules and may cause interstitial nephritis causing AKI.

Prevention

UTI can be prevented. The following steps can reduce the risk of UTI significantly.

  • Drinking plenty of water or liquids ensure frequent urination, preventing the colonization of the bacteria in the bladder.
  • Wiping from front to back after urinating bowel movement can prevent the easy passage of the bacteria to the urinary system [10].
  • Emptying the bladder immediately after the intercourse and drinking a glass of water help to flush out of bacteria.

Summing up, though UTI is a common disease affecting all the segments of the population, it can be successfully managed and prevented by making people aware of the clinical complications. UTI can also be prevented by incorporating proper hygiene in their daily routine.

Summary

Anatomy of the excretory system

Kidneys are small organs that lie on either side of the spine. Apart from removing the waste and excess water from the body, kidneys also play an important role in the regulation of the blood-pressure. These organs are extremely sensitive to the changes in the blood-glucose levels; hence both diabetes and hypertension can adversely affect the working of the kidneys.

There are two ureters that drain the urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder. The bladder stores the urine and when a certain level of urine is collected, it voluntarily contracts to expel the urine.

Urethra connects the bladder to the outside of the body. Infection that involves the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra (or excretory system) is called the Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Any of the parts of this system can be infected and the further up the infection, the greater is the chance of infection to become serious.

Types of infection

Patient Information

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of a part of the urinary tract.

Though there are no specific signs and symptoms of UTI, but when they manifests they may show the following features:

The trouble during urination: There is a persistent and strong urge to urinate. While passing the urine, there is a burning sensation. The urine appears cloudy and sometimes it appears red, pink or cola-colored due to presence of blood.

Frequency of frination: The patient passes small quantity of urine frequently. In fact, the patient may be the distressed with the number of visits to the washroom.

Pain: Pelvic pain and rectal pain is observed in women and men suffering from UTI respectively.

Treatment of UTI depends on the extent of the infection.

References

Article

  1. Foxman B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol. Dec 2010;7(12):653-60
  2. Dalal S, Nicolle L, Marrs CF, Zhang L, Harding G, Foxman B. Long-term Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria among women with diabetes mellitus. Clin Infect Dis. Aug 15 2009;49(4):491-7.
  3. van der Starre WE, van Nieuwkoop C, Paltansing S, et al. Risk factors for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in adults with community-onset febrile urinary tract infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. Mar 2011;66(3):650-6.
  4. Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Cox ME, Stapleton AE. Voided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women. N Engl J Med. Nov 14 2013;369(20):1883-91.
  5. Little P, Turner S, Rumsby K, Warner G, Moore M, Lowes JA, et al. Dipsticks and diagnostic algorithms in urinary tract infection: development and validation, randomised trial, economic analysis, observational cohort and qualitative study. Health Technol Assess. Mar 2009;13(19):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-73.
  6. Lane DR, Takhar SS. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Aug 2011;29(3):539-52
  7. Olson RP, Harrell LJ, Kaye KS. Antibiotic resistance in urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from college women with urinary tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Mar 2009;53(3):1285-
  8. Wagenlehner FM, Schmiemann G, Hoyme U, Fünfstück R, Hummers-Pradier E, Kaase M, et al. [National S3 guideline on uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recommendations for treatment and management of uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial urinary tract infections in adult patients].Urologe A. Feb 2011;50(2):153-69.
  9. Cunha BA. Antibiotic Essentials. 7th ed. Royal Oak, Mich: Physicians Press.; 2008.
  10. Jepson RG, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Jan 23 2008;CD001321.

Symptoms

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