Usher syndrome exists in three types with type 1 patients being the most severely affected, whilst type 2 and 3 represent moderate and mild entities of this syndrome, respectively. Affected heterozygotic children are usually asymptomatic while homozygotes displaying a wide array of features present most often since birth.
A moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears is seen at birth in homozygotic type 1 and type 2 patients. They may also concurrently develop speech deficits. Type 3 patients present with normal hearing at birth.
The sensorineural deafness is often diagnosed in isolation until the features of retinitis pigmentosa become apparent. Retinitis pigmentosa is initially marked by symmetrical and bilateral degeneration of the peripheral regions of the retina and later spreading to the more central regions . Frequently, the initial symptoms noticed by the individual or his/her parents or teachers include night blindness and tunnel vision, with the constriction of visual fields continuing well into adulthood . These features occur much earlier in type 1 patients than in the other types. Complete blindness may develop in these individuals.
Another important feature exclusive only to type 1 Usher syndrome patients is vestibular areflexia due to which walking milestones are achieved at a later date than usual (18 months to 2 years). Other children may appear clumsy whilst walking with frequent injuries being reported in these patients.
Entire Body System
As a result, WES revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in a Turkish USH2A patient. This approach gave us an opportunity to have an appropriate diagnosis and provide genetic counseling to the family within a reasonable time. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
After hearing her story and having it touch his heart, the general manager of Turkish Airlines made the Myers family an offer they couldn’t refuse: free, round-trip tickets to any location in the world. [medicaldaily.com]
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
- Hearing Impairment
One individual (IV:1) is profoundly hearing impaired and has normal vestibular function and retinitis punctata albescens (RPA). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
HEARING IMPAIRMENT, and CORRECTION OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT by non-medical or non-surgical means. [bioportfolio.com]
Usher Syndrome is the most common genetic cause of deaf-blindness in adults and affects 3-6% of children born with hearing impairment(Kremer et al., 2006). [ushersyndrome.wordpress.com]
- Profound Congenital Hearing Loss
Loss of function variants in the PCDH15 gene can cause Usher syndrome type 1F, an autosomal recessive disease associated with profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by severe to profound congenital hearing loss, RP and vestibular areflexia. [asperbio.com]
Type I (USH1) is defined by profound congenital hearing loss, onset of RP usually within the first decade of life and an absence of vestibular function. [ojrd.biomedcentral.com]
Common findings of Usher syndrome, including night blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects, and retinal changes may distract the clinician from considering the diagnosis of glaucoma. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Remove sources of background distraction and glare. Employ a copy signer in a busy classroom with signing students. Employ tracking and/or tactile techniques when needed. [asha.org]
She did not complain of vertigo. The family history was unremarkable. Physical examination revealed no obvious abnormalities of the external ear or tympanic membrane. [e-ceo.org]
Case 3 The patient was a 43-year-old female with a history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis, gastritis, uveitis, and vertigo who presented with 2-year history of progressively worsening lower back pain radiating to both lower extremities. [cyberleninka.org]
吉村 豪兼; 矢野 卓也; 内藤 武彦; 宮川 麻衣子; 茂木 英明; 西尾 信哉; 宇佐美 真一; めまいを主訴とした多発性硬化症の1例 Equilibrium research,70(4):245-249 2011(Aug. 01) Author:吉村 豪兼; 坂口 正範; 福岡 久邦; 塚田 景大; 宇佐美 真一; Abstract:A 27-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital 5 days after an episode of vertigo [soar-rd.shinshu-u.ac.jp]
The diagnosis of Usher syndrome is primarily clinical and should be suspected in individuals who present with the clinical features as listed above amidst otherwise normal physical examination. These include sensorineural deafness, vestibular areflexia, and retinitis pigmentosa. A thorough assessment to detect the presence and severity of these conditions needs to be made via appropriate audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmologic evaluation. In addition, the presence of a family history of autosomal recessive diseases raises the likelihood of the presence of Usher syndrome in these individuals.
When the clinical features are inconclusive, molecular genetic testing techniques may be employed to reach a proper diagnosis. These may include serial single gene testing, multi-gene panels, or other extensive genomic tests to look for pathogenic variants of the related genes.
Single gene testing may involve the testing of genes such as the MY07A, USH1C, and CDH23 genes for type 1 patients. Testing for the USH2A, ADGRV1, and WHRN (DFNB31) genes may be required for type 2 patients   . Multi-gene panels may also be utilized to look for biallelic pathologic variants of the associated genes   . Other molecular techniques assessing the deletions and/or duplications of the genes may also be employed.
If the diagnosis is still uncertain, more comprehensive genomic tests (exome and full genome sequencing) may be carried out which may reveal mutations and diseases not included in the differential diagnosis previously.
Using the results of this successful basic research, the Usher treatment team in Mainz headed by Dr Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum has now evaluated potential ocular treatment options. [sciencedaily.com]
No treatments exist for Usher syndrome, which affects as many as 50,000 people in the United States and Europe. [ohsu.edu]
While there are currently no universally agreed upon treatments for Usher syndrome, there are a number of treatments nearing clinical trial that could potentially help people with Usher syndrome. [usher-registry.org]
"Our gene-based treatment strategies, involving gene repair as well as read-through therapy, represent valuable and promising alternatives to viral gene addition and may actually be the only treatment option for the large and isoform-rich USH genes. [uni-mainz.de]
Diagnosis and Prognosis: Auditory testing can detect deafness at birth but this is often missed in the absence of a family history. [disorders.eyes.arizona.edu]
Because of the poor visual prognosis, the patient refused surgery in that eye. Tractional retinal detachment should be added to the differential diagnoses of visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Furthermore, the authors compare their psychiatric symptoms with other reports and the possible etiologies of psychotic symptoms are discussed. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Study of the etiology of deafness in an institutionalized population in Colombia. Am J Med Genet. 1992;44:405-8. 5. Tamayo ML, Bernal JE, Tamayo GE, Frias JL, Alvira G, Vergara O, et al. Usher syndrome: Results of a screening program in Colombia. [revistabiomedica.org]
These results suggest that our panel is an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of Usher syndrome leading to: 1) an accurate molecular diagnosis, 2) better genetic counselling, 3) more precise molecular epidemiology data fundamental for future [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology The incidence is about 1 in 25,000. About 3-6% of hearing impaired children have the condition. Types 1 and 2 are more common than type 3 and together account for 90-95% of Usher's syndrome and about 10% of all children born deaf. [patient.info]
This was possibly thanks to the epidemiological surveillance practiced in communities to control vector transmission, allied with the National Program for Chagas Disease Control and rural socioeconomic factors. [htct.com.br]
Targeted exon sequencing successfully discovers rare causative genes and clarifies the molecular epidemiology of Japanese deafness patients. PLoS ONE 8, e71381 (2013). 3. Shearer, A. E., Black-Ziegelbein, E. A., Hildebrand, M. S., Eppsteiner, R. [nature.com]
The identification of pathogenic mutations is of great significance for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of USH. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] ush2armc zebrafish model, which revealed similar changes in photopigment mislocalisation with elevated autophagy levels at 6 days post fertilisation indicating a more severe genotype-phenotype correlation, and providing evidence of new insights into the pathophysiology [academic.oup.com]
[…] deposits at the dermoepidermal junction For a thorough description and introduction to the possible causes of pemphigus, see the article " Pemphigus: An Acronym for a Disease with Multiple Causes ", published by the International Pemphigus Society.  Pathophysiology [emedicine.medscape.com]
Burnett MG, Zager EL: Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury: a brief review. Neurosurg Focus 16:E1, 2004 5. Cheatham SW, Kolber MJ, Salamh PA: Meralgia paresthetica: a review of the literature. Int J Sports Phys Ther 8:883-893, 2013 6. [cyberleninka.org]
Conclusions: These findings provide a basis for investigating genotype–phenotype relationships in Chinese USH II and RP patients and for clarifying the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of the diseases associated with USH2A mutations. [portlandpress.com]
A variety of different viral-based delivery approaches have been tested for retinal gene therapy to prevent the blindness of Usher 1B, and a clinical trial based on one of these approaches has begun. This review evaluates the different approaches. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
However, early diagnosis is important in order to attenuate the far-reaching consequences of this condition and to take preventative measures. [hear.com]
Prevention There are no current guidelines to prevent Usher syndrome. References: Dammeyer J. Children with Usher syndrome: Mental and behavioral disorders. Behav Brain Funct. 2012;8:16. Lopes VS, Williams DS. [cancercarewny.com]
So far, there has been little research on Usher-Syndrome itself and unfortunately there is currently no prevention or treatment for this illness available. [ushernet.org]
- Gregory-Evans K, Bhattacharya SS. Genetic blindness: current concepts in the pathogenesis of human outer retinal dystrophies. Trends Genet. 1998;14(3):103-108.
- Pennings RJE, Huygen PLM, Orten DJ, et al. Evaluation of visual impairment in Usher syndrome 1b and Usher syndrome 2a. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004;82(2):131-139.
- Bonnet C, Grati M ’Hamed, Marlin S, et al. Complete exon sequencing of all known Usher syndrome genes greatly improves molecular diagnosis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:21.
- Le Quesne Stabej P, Saihan Z, Rangesh N, et al. Comprehensive sequence analysis of nine Usher syndrome genes in the UK National Collaborative Usher Study. J Med Genet. 2012;49(1):27-36.
- García-García G, Besnard T, Baux D, et al. The contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes to a Spanish Usher syndrome type 2 cohort. Mol Vis. 2013;19:367-373.
- Hilgert N, Kahrizi K, Dieltjens N, et al. A large deletion in GPR98 causes type IIC Usher syndrome in male and female members of an Iranian family. J Med Genet. 2009;46(4):272-276.
- Besnard T, Vaché C, Baux D, et al. Non-USH2A mutations in USH2 patients. Hum Mutat. 2012;33(3):504-510.
- Aparisi MJ, Aller E, Fuster-García C, et al. Targeted next generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014;9:168.