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Uterine Cancer


Presentation

  • Estrogen receptors, known to be present on the surfaces of the cells of this type of cancer, are thought to interact with the hormone causing increased cell growth, which can then result in cancer.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The size and type of cyst present determine if the ovary will need to be removed.[innovativegyn.com]
  • When estrogen is present without enough progesterone, it can cause the endometrium to become too thick.[acog.org]
  • Diagnosis and staging The specialist might conduct further tests to find out whether cancer is present and, if it is, the stage of development and if it has spread. Other investigations may also be considered.[cancerpathways.org.au]
  • Progestin is present in the combined oral contraceptive pill and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). [17] [32] Combined oral contraceptives reduce risk more the longer they are taken: by 56% after four years, 67% after eight years, and 72% after twelve[en.wikipedia.org]
Pain
  • The symptoms of recurrence are variable but include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea or vomiting, or changes in bowel or bladder habits, vaginal bleeding, or shortness of breath.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • Uterine cancer Other names Womb cancer Specialty Oncology Symptoms Endometrial cancer : vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain [1] Uterine sarcoma : vaginal bleeding, mass in the vagina [2] Types Endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma [3] Risk factors Endometrial[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Women with ovarian cysts might experience any of the following symptoms: Menstrual irregularities or abnormal bleeding Dull ache in your lower back or thighs Pelvic pain shortly before or after the beginning of your menstrual cycle Pelvic pain with intercourse[innovativegyn.com]
Disability
  • "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015".[en.wikipedia.org]
  • "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015".[en.wikipedia.org]
Physician
  • City of Hope’s renowned physicians and researchers utilize the latest in technology and innovation to treat cancer, coupled with our enduring belief in providing unparalleled compassionate care.[cityofhope.org]
  • "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question". Choosing Wisely. Society of Gynecologic Oncology. 31 October 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2014. "Survival by stage of endometrial cancer".[en.wikipedia.org]
Weight Loss
  • Symptoms of endometrial/uterine cancer include: Unusual vaginal bleeding Pelvic pain Unexplained weight loss Feeling a mass Abnormal vagina discharge Diagnosing endometrial/uterine cancer Early detection of endometrial/uterine cancer improves the chances[cityofhope.org]
  • Smoking provides protection by altering the metabolism of estrogen and promoting weight loss and early menopause. This protective effect lasts long after smoking is stopped.[en.wikipedia.org]
Surgical Procedure
  • By having the section immediately reviewed and staged in the same surgery, the patient avoids having to undergo a second surgical procedure at a later date.[innovativegyn.com]
  • procedure; however, laparoscopy (keyhole surgery) is associated with lower operative morbidity.[en.wikipedia.org]
Nausea
  • The symptoms of recurrence are variable but include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea or vomiting, or changes in bowel or bladder habits, vaginal bleeding, or shortness of breath.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • […] symptoms: Menstrual irregularities or abnormal bleeding Dull ache in your lower back or thighs Pelvic pain shortly before or after the beginning of your menstrual cycle Pelvic pain with intercourse (dyspareunia) Fullness or heaviness in your abdomen Nausea[innovativegyn.com]
Vomiting
  • The symptoms of recurrence are variable but include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea or vomiting, or changes in bowel or bladder habits, vaginal bleeding, or shortness of breath.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • : Menstrual irregularities or abnormal bleeding Dull ache in your lower back or thighs Pelvic pain shortly before or after the beginning of your menstrual cycle Pelvic pain with intercourse (dyspareunia) Fullness or heaviness in your abdomen Nausea, vomiting[innovativegyn.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • The symptoms of recurrence are variable but include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea or vomiting, or changes in bowel or bladder habits, vaginal bleeding, or shortness of breath.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • The uterus may become enlarged or the cancer may spread, causing lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramping. [10] Painful sexual intercourse or painful or difficult urination are less common signs of endometrial cancer. [9] The uterus may also fill with[en.wikipedia.org]
Night Sweats
  • This can lead to side effects such as night sweats, hot flushes and reduced libido. Fortunately, there are many ways to reduce or manage the side effects of treatment.[cancerpathways.org.au]
Pelvic Pain
  • Uterine cancer Other names Womb cancer Specialty Oncology Symptoms Endometrial cancer : vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain [1] Uterine sarcoma : vaginal bleeding, mass in the vagina [2] Types Endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma [3] Risk factors Endometrial[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Women with ovarian cysts might experience any of the following symptoms: Menstrual irregularities or abnormal bleeding Dull ache in your lower back or thighs Pelvic pain shortly before or after the beginning of your menstrual cycle Pelvic pain with intercourse[innovativegyn.com]
  • Initial investigations and referral Your general practitioner (GP) will assess your symptoms (for example, vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain) and conduct a physical examination.[cancerpathways.org.au]
Vaginal Bleeding
  • Uterine cancer Other names Womb cancer Specialty Oncology Symptoms Endometrial cancer : vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain [1] Uterine sarcoma : vaginal bleeding, mass in the vagina [2] Types Endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma [3] Risk factors Endometrial[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The symptoms of recurrence are variable but include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea or vomiting, or changes in bowel or bladder habits, vaginal bleeding, or shortness of breath.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • Initial investigations and referral Your general practitioner (GP) will assess your symptoms (for example, vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain) and conduct a physical examination.[cancerpathways.org.au]
  • Specialty Oncology, gynecology Symptoms Vaginal bleeding, pain with urination or sexual intercourse, pelvic pain [1] Usual onset After menopause [2] Risk factors Obesity, excessive estrogen exposure, high blood pressure, diabetes, family history [1] [[en.wikipedia.org]
Vaginal Discharge
  • Other symptoms include thin white or clear vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women. More advanced disease shows more obvious symptoms or signs that can be detected on a physical examination.[en.wikipedia.org]
Hot Flushes
  • This can lead to side effects such as night sweats, hot flushes and reduced libido. Fortunately, there are many ways to reduce or manage the side effects of treatment.[cancerpathways.org.au]
Ovarian Pain
  • However, patients with suspected cancers, with family or personal history of breast or ovarian cancer, or with prior histories of ovarian pain or scarring may need complete removal of the ovary at the time of surgery.[innovativegyn.com]

Workup

Ovarian Mass
  • Cysts or ovarian masses that are suspected of being cancerous may require complete removal of the ovary to avoid rupture.[innovativegyn.com]

Treatment

  • There are a number of different treatment options for recurrent endometrial cancer. Overall, chemotherapy is the most common treatment for recurrent endometrial cancer. A wide variety of effective chemotherapy drugs are available.[cancer.columbia.edu]
  • Endometrial/uterine cancer treatment options If you’ve been diagnosed with uterine or endometrial cancer, there are several different treatment options available.[cityofhope.org]
  • Retrieved 3 February 2019. a b c d e f g h "Uterine Sarcoma Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019. a b c d "Uterine Cancer". National Cancer Institute. 1 January 1980.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • For more information about treatment and treatment side effects ask your doctor or visit www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/treatment.[cancerpathways.org.au]
  • However, with stage I disease, 90% of women will have no sign of cancer 5 or more years after treatment. A healthy lifestyle is recommended after cancer treatment.[acog.org]

Prognosis

  • Endometrial cancer : obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, family history of the condition [1] Uterine sarcoma : radiation therapy to the pelvis [2] Treatment Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy [1] [2] Prognosis[en.wikipedia.org]
  • They have a worse prognosis than grade III tumors.[en.wikipedia.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology [ edit ] Age-standardized death from cancer of the uterine body per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. [8] no data less than 0.5 0.5–1 1–1.5 1.5–2 2–2.5 2.5–3 3–3.5 3.5–4 4–4.5 4.5–5 5–8 more than 8 Uterine cancer resulted in about 58,000 deaths[en.wikipedia.org]
  • "Endometrial cancer and obesity: epidemiology, biomarkers, prevention and survivorship". Gynecologic Oncology. 114 (1): 121–7. doi : 10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.03.039. PMID 19406460. Koutoukidis DA, Knobf MT, Lanceley A (June 2015).[en.wikipedia.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • "Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology". Human Reproduction Update. 21 (2): 155–73. doi : 10.1093/humupd/dmu056. PMC 4366574.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention TOPICS - Do we know what causes endometrial cancer? - cancer.org - American Cancer Society - Retrieved 5 January 2015. "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • This allows for easy removal and prevents fluid from the mass from spilling into the pelvic cavity. Any masses suspected for malignancy are sent for frozen section analysis.[innovativegyn.com]
  • […] cancersurvivorship beyondblue: the national depression initiative Information on depression, anxiety and related disorders, available treatment and support services • Telephone: 1300 22 4636 • Website: www.beyondblue.org.au Cancer Australia Information on cancer prevention[cancerpathways.org.au]
  • "Endometrial cancer and obesity: epidemiology, biomarkers, prevention and survivorship". Gynecologic Oncology. 114 (1): 121–7. doi : 10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.03.039. PMID 19406460. Koutoukidis DA, Knobf MT, Lanceley A (June 2015).[en.wikipedia.org]

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