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Psychogenic Vaginismus


  • METHODS: A retrospective study of patients presenting with severe refractory vaginismus treated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present article reports on a cognitive behavioural model for the assessment and treatment of patients with vaginismus.[doi.org]
  • OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate pregnancy outcome of patients with vaginismus, and specifically the relationship between vaginismus and cesarean delivery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Data were taken from a questionnaire concerning long-term coital behaviour sent to 59 women who presented to Linköping University Hospital because of superficial coital pain, had been diagnosed with vaginismus, and had been treated with CBT.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the social and clinical characteristics of women with vaginismus with those of healthy women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIM: To investigate the frequency of female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) in a Turkish clinical sample and to determine the comorbidity of other FSDs in women diagnosed with lifelong vaginismus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of a group of Turkish vaginismus patients who benefited from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and to study which factors this treatment model changes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Turk Psikiyatri Derg 1993; 4:83-88 (Article in Turkish). 45. Yargıç İ, Kayır A. Vajinismus: Bir grup psikoterapisi sunumu. Düşünen Adam: Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Dergisi 1996; 9:31-34 (Article in Turkish). 46. Kayır A, Şahin D.[dusunenadamdergisi.org]
  • Among 54 such Turkish women seeking psychiatric care for sexual pain, almost 76% were diagnosed with vaginismus (Dogan, 2009).[blogs.webmd.com]
  • Based on this review, it is proposed that the diagnoses of vaginismus and dyspareunia be collapsed into a single diagnostic entity called "genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder."[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Based on this review, it is proposed that the diagnoses of vaginismus and dyspareunia be collapsed into a single diagnostic entity called “genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder.”[doi.org]
  • Dichotomous data We collapsed active treatment groups into a single arm for comparison against the control group, or split the control group equally between the treatment groups.[doi.org]
  • He argues that the diagnosis of vaginismus and dyspareunia "be collapsed into a single entity, called genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder". 10 Most sexual medicine physicians would argue that despite the lack of empiric evidence, superficial dyspareunia[glowm.com]
Muscle Spasm
  • In addition to the lack of agreement regarding the term muscle spasm and the muscles involved in vaginismus, there is no empirically standardized diagnostic protocol for vaginal muscle spasm.[dx.doi.org]
  • Vaginismus is currently defined as an involuntary vaginal muscle spasm interfering with sexual intercourse that is relatively easy to diagnose and treat.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Vaginismus, involuntary muscle spasm that closes the opening to the vagina in the female reproductive tract. The spasm may be so intense that the vagina seems pathologically obstructed.[britannica.com]
Muscle Cramp
  • But there are also women with vaginismus who are unable to insert anything into the vagina at all, since it is too painful or the muscles cramp up too much.[sexualhealthaustralia.com.au]
  • Definition of the term 'muscle spasm  involuntary muscle cramp, a defensive mechanism or  hypertonicity of the pelvic floor muscles. b.[slideshare.net]
  • The term spasm itself is also controversial as there is no agreement on whether spasm refers to an involuntary muscle cramp, a defensive mechanism or a hypertonicity of the pelvic floor muscles.[dx.doi.org]
  • […] assess the pelvic viscera, injection of a long-acting local anesthetic in a vaginal scar as a diagnostic test for further surgical treatment, or the use of medications such as anesthetic creams, estrogen cream, or antihistamines for vaginal or vulvar pruritus[glowm.com]
Type A Personality
  • Controlled empirical findings using standardized instruments evaluating type of personalities and male sexual dysfunction, however, have not supported this view [ 26, 52, 58 ].[dx.doi.org]
Auditory Hallucination
  • There were no psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucination, delusion, anxiety or depression. She managed to conceive on both occasions through “splash pregnancy”.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There were no psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucination, delusion, anxiety or depression. She managed to conceive on both occasions through “splash pregnancy”.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tampon Use
  • Primary vaginismus means that there has always been pain/ tightness with anything in the vagina (such as first tampon use, first sexual intercourse).[issvd.org]
  • This penetration may include sexual intercourse, certain medical examinations and tampon use. It is caused by a reflex of the pubococcygeus muscle (PC muscle). This muscle is located at the lower end of the vagina.[womenshealthclinic.ie]
  • If you reach the stage where you can put your finger inside your vagina, you can try to insert a tampon, using lubricant if needed.[hse.ie]
  • “If you reach the stage where you can put your finger inside your vagina, you can try to insert a tampon, using lubricant if needed.” Botox injections may also help ease symptoms.[huffingtonpost.co.uk]
  • Lack of sensitivity on the physician's part, or neglecting to adequately inform the patient what she can expect, has sometimes contributed to the pelvic exam being a negative experience for women; causing them to fear sexual intercourse.[healthyplace.com]
  • "This difficulty may have been compounded by the lack of sex education in Irish schools until recent years beyond what might have been covered in biology class, neglecting any education on the emotional or relationship aspects of sex.[independent.ie]
  • Sex education in Irish schools that typically neglects any discussion of the emotional or relationship aspects of sex also contributes to the difficulty.[rte.ie]
  • Not only is GPPPD rarely discussed among sufferers, but it appears to be largely neglected in the medical world, too.[huffingtonpost.com.au]
  • From this group, we prospectively recruited consecutive women (n 39) whose diagnostic electromyogram (EMG) recordings from the levator ani muscle showed hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: EMG in patients showed muscular hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sexual Pain Disorders - Female Sexual Disorders - Chronic Pain - Endometriosis - Clinical Examination - Gynaecology - Urinary Incontinence - Ageing - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Sexual Trasmitted Diseases - Mastcells - Iatrogenic Menopause - Hyperactive[fondazionegraziottin.org]
  • ., the Female Sexual Functioning Index), on possibility of having sexual intercourse, on levator ani EMG hyperactivity and on bowel–bladder symptoms. [87] After a 39 month follow-up, 63.2% of their participants had completely recovered from vaginismus[medscape.com]
  • […] some of the many pelvic floor muscles that function to keep the bladder, bowel, rectum and uterus in place within the pelvic cavity. 1 These muscles have to be active enough to keep these internal organs in the right place, but sometimes they can be hyperactive[soc.ucsb.edu]
Feeling of Relaxation
  • Talking with your partner about your feelings and fears about intercourse may help you feel more relaxed. Your doctor or therapist can provide you with ways to overcome vaginismus. Many people recover and go on to live happy sexual lives.[healthline.com]
  • […] lignocaine gel along with systematic desensitization resulting in successful consummation, and suggest that it may be a useful adjunct during finger dilatation in the treatment of vaginismus, specifically in patients who have associated pain or areas of hyperesthesia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Resolution of primary vaginismus and introital hyperesthesia by topical anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1997; 85 : 1415–1416.[nature.com]
  • Hyperesthesia and vaginismus. In H. T. Byford (Ed.), Manual of gynecology (pp. 575–578). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son. Google Scholar Crowley, T., Goldmeier, D., & Hiller, J. (2009). Diagnosing and managing vaginismus.[doi.org]
  • ., conflicted and antagonistic feelings toward men in general or one’s sexual partner in particular; sexual clumsiness). Secondary vaginismus is common.[health.am]
  • While many of us can probably relate to the awkwardness and clumsiness of a first sexual encounter, Isley's reaction was the result of a little talked about condition.[bbc.com]


Neurophysiologic Abnormalities
  • SIGNIFICANCE: The neurophysiological abnormalities in patients with vaginismus indicate concomitant CNS changes in this disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] a variety of effective treatments, and explain how Botox can be used as part of a multimodal treatment program to treat vaginismus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No treatment predictors could be detected in this study sample.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIM: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether treatment outcome of a therapist-aided exposure treatment was mediated by changes in positive and negative penetration beliefs or feelings of sexual disgust.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Controlled trials comparing treatments for vaginismus with another treatment, a placebo treatment, treatment as usual or waiting list control.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • , Prevention, and Complications Prognosis vaginal dilators are typically very successful Please rate topic.[step2.medbullets.com]
  • Topics may include: Sexual anatomy Sexual response cycle Common myths about sex Outlook (Prognosis) Women who are treated by a sex therapy specialist can very often overcome this problem. Images References Cowley DS, Lentz GM.[ufhealth.org]
  • Topics may include: Sexual anatomy Sexual response cycle Common myths about sex Outlook (Prognosis) Women who are treated by a sex therapy specialist can very often overcome this problem. References Cowley DS, Lentz GM.[mountsinai.org]
  • Injections of botulinum toxin have been found to be useful in some but there are no randomised controlled trials. [ 3, 8 ] Prognosis There is little good-quality evidence to inform this.[patient.info]


  • As a result, there has been a lack of research interest with very few well-controlled diagnostic, etiological or treatment outcome studies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiological theories have changed over time but are not supported by controlled empirical studies. This critical review of the literature disputes the widely held belief that vaginismus is an easily diagnosed and easily treated sexual dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Reissing ED, Binik YM, Khalifé S, Cohen D, Amsel R (2003) Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment.[doi.org]
  • Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.[doi.org]


  • Author information 1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. 2 Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Epidemiology/risk factors of sexual dysfunction". J Sex Med. 1 (1): 35–9. CiteSeerX doi : 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2004.10106.x.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology A study in 1993 by Rosen and colleagues estimate that the rates of vaginismus range from 5% to 17%. 2 out of 1000 women have this.[courses.lumenlearning.com]
  • DMCA Epidemiology/Risk Factors of Sexual Dysfunction by Ronald W. Lewis, A Kersten S. Fugl-meyer, B R. Bosch, C Axel R. Fugl-meyer, Edward O. Laumann, D E. Lizza, Antonio Martin-morales, Edited T. F. Lue, R. Basson, R. Rosen, F. Giuliano, S.[citeseerx.ist.psu.edu]
  • These problems are common and may be related to numerous factors in the woman's life: Overwork Depression Unrelated disease Relationship problems Drug abuse Alcohol problems Hormonal changes Prescribed drugs Epidemiology This is an issue many women find[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • In the note accompanying that definition, the following can be found about pain that happens for psychological reasons: [5] Many people report pain in the absence of tissue damage or any likely pathophysiological cause; usually this happens for psychological[ipfs.io]
  • Generally, if the sleep disorder is one of the major complaints and is perceived as a condition in itself, the present code should be used along with other pertinent diagnoses describing the psychopathology and pathophysiology involved in a given case[apps.who.int]
  • While the etiology of urethral diverticula continues to be debated, the pathophysiology appears to revolve around obstruction of and infection within the paraurethral glands.[primarypsychiatry.com]


  • Vaginismus can totally prevent coitus or make it extremely painful, a condition known as dyspareunia. Treatment includes counseling and exercises to improve voluntary control of the vaginal muscles.[britannica.com]
  • This appears to be a significant problem in the conservative middle-Eastern societies and in the developing countries, where couples are strongly prevented by religious rules and cultural taboos from sexual experiences before wedding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This can cause sexual intercourse to become painful or prevent it all together.[study.com]
  • […] the vagina preventing intercourse.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

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