Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection

Varicella Zoster Infection


Presentation

  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old man with a history of VZV presented with a 6-month history of chest pain, flulike symptoms, and left-sided headaches.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a patient with a fatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following zoster bacterial superinfection of the pelvic region. case presentation: a 71-year old male diagnosed with IgG kappa plasmocytoma presented with a conspicuous weight loss[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present the first case of documented direct VZV infection in the muscularis propria of the gut presenting as intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 30-year-old female presented with high-grade fever and rash over face and body for 5 days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also highlight the high incidence and high mortality in VZV infection in immunocompromised patients as well as the frequent atypical presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • […] nausea, vomiting 35-800 mg tabs; 70 valacyclovir 2-18 years old; 20 mg/kg 3x/day; max. 1g 3x/day; 5 days 2 1 g 3x/day; 7 days 2 headache, nausea, abdominal pain 21-1 g tabs; 220 famciclovir not established 500 mg 3x/day 3 ; 7 days 2 headache, nausea, fatigue[antimicrobe.org]
Feeding Difficulties
  • An infant was exposed to VZV at 18.5 weeks of gestation and had eye and skin abnormalities at birth and persistent feeding difficulties, prompting esophageal biopsies at 12 days and 20 and 20.5 months of age.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hoarseness
  • We present a case of VZV infection of the pharynx and larynx with multiple cranial nerve (CN) neuropathies (CN VII, VIII, IX, and X) of a 52-year-old woman who complained of the sudden onset of hoarseness, odynophagia, dysphagia, and hearing loss in the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Odynophagia
  • We present a case of VZV infection of the pharynx and larynx with multiple cranial nerve (CN) neuropathies (CN VII, VIII, IX, and X) of a 52-year-old woman who complained of the sudden onset of hoarseness, odynophagia, dysphagia, and hearing loss in the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Liver Dysfunction
  • VZV infection should be considered in patients with unexplained liver dysfunction under severe immunosuppressive condition, even in the absence of viral exposure and skin involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, skin eruptions, eye/oral dryness, and liver dysfunction were observed at the healing stage of localized zoster, suggesting development of GVHD. Intensification of immunosuppressive therapy was required to control GVHD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Thrombosis
  • Three cases of deep venous thrombosis following varicella infection are described which were successfully treated with bed rest and anticoagulants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Monoarthritis of the Knee
  • We present the case of a 27-year-old female patient with monoarthritis of the knee associated with clinical symptoms typical of varicella.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Retinal Pigmentation
  • KEYWORDS: ARPE-19; RPE (retinal pigment epithelium); VZV; inflammation; viral uveitis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Diplopia
  • We describe the case of a patient with VZV infection presenting as isolated diplopia due to fourth cranial nerve palsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Eczema
  • Two patients had disseminated infection without a vesicular stage; one patient had underlying asteatotic eczema. All responded well to acyclovir.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Ecthyma
  • VZV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ecthyma-like lesions in an immunocompromised host.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Headache
  • Author information 1 Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan. brainhemostasis@yahoo.com Abstract A nummular headache (NH) is a type of primary headache that results from cranial[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old man with a history of VZV presented with a 6-month history of chest pain, flulike symptoms, and left-sided headaches.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There was no headache, petechiae or neck stiffness, and no lumbar puncture was performed.[scholarlypages.org]
  • Common adverse effects of VariZIG include reactions at the injection site and headaches. The recommended dose of VariZIG is 125 IU/10 kg of body weight ( 625 IU).[uspharmacist.com]
  • […] vomiting 35-800 mg tabs; 70 valacyclovir 2-18 years old; 20 mg/kg 3x/day; max. 1g 3x/day; 5 days 2 1 g 3x/day; 7 days 2 headache, nausea, abdominal pain 21-1 g tabs; 220 famciclovir not established 500 mg 3x/day 3 ; 7 days 2 headache, nausea, fatigue,[antimicrobe.org]
Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • To further assess the cognitive dysfunction caused by neurological VZV infection, patients were classified into the concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is associated with development of dementia in other pathologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neonatal Seizures
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical and neuropathologic findings of infants with neonatal seizures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VZV antibodies, but no maternal clinical VZV infection during the pregnancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • […] acyclovir-resistant VZV, detections of mutations in thymidine kinase can be determined by PCR and sequence analysis MRI may be useful if myelitis or encephalitis is suspected Lumbar puncture may be helpful if signs suggest myelitis or encephalitis See Workup[emedicine.medscape.com]
White Matter Lesions
  • Both children presented with focal epileptic seizures, corresponding to cortical/subcortical as well as white matter lesions. The first showed a typical vesicular skin rash.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection involving the posterior segment of the eye after fludarabine treatment has not previously been described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Polymerase chain reaction and tissue immunohistochemistry were positive for VZV, and treatment with valacyclovir resulted in complete clearance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She was easily diagnosed and made a rapid recovery during acyclovir and steroid treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After initiation of haemodialysis treatment his condition improved rapidly. However, he developed a varicella-zoster virus infection of the twelfth thoracic dermatome requiring intravenous acyclovir treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In general, MM patients have shown a risk of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of 1-4 %, increasing with bortezomib treatment or transplants, but whether immunomodulatory drugs also bear a risk of VZV/complicated herpes simplex virus (HSV) (e.g.,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • What should you tell the family about the patient's prognosis? The most common complication of chickenpox is secondary skin infection, usually with a Gram-positive organism. Rarer complications include infection of the central nervous system (CNS).[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Etiology

  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has rarely been reported as an etiological agent, despite its high incidence as a pathogen in childhood. PATIENTS: We describe two children in whom EM preceded VZV infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Several concomitant external calvarial lesions were identified, and imaging was concerning for an infectious or neoplastic etiology. The patient underwent surgical debridement, and pathologic samples identified coinfection with P. acnes and VZV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Various viruses have been reported as the etiology, of which varicella zoster virus was first reported in 1953. However, since nationwide administration of the varicella vaccine, reports of varicella-associated myopericaridits have become sporadic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • J Immunol May 1, 2016, 196 (1 Supplement) 217.33; Abstract Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of shingles, a painful skin rash that affects a significant proportion of the elderly population.[jimmunol.org]
  • . • Identifying varicella-zoster virus as the etiology of CNS involvement can be challenging especially in the setting of no preceding rash.[medlink.com]

Epidemiology

  • Results show that the overall epidemiology of varicella and zoster is remarkably similar between the two countries.[researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk]
  • The diagnosis was reached by clinical, epidemiological and serological means. The second patient was a 13-year-old boy with EM which was followed 2 weeks later by Ramsay-Hunt syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The policy of universal vaccination of susceptible children and adults has had a profound effect on the epidemiology of varicella.[nejm.org]
  • The sero-epidemiological profile in Italy is different from that in other European countries.[bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com]
  • Removing survival effects through age-standardization is recommended when considering epidemiologic or model-based analysis of past trends in HZ. Copyright 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In this narrative review we focus on the pathophysiology of VZV infection and the role of TNF, and report the available data about VZV outbreaks recorded on Registries of rheumatic patients treated with anti-TNF agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 4,6 Historically, children between the ages of 1 and 4 years accounted for 39% of cases, while children aged 5 to 9 years and adults 20 years accounted for 38% and 7%, respectively (National Health Interview Survey data, 1990-1994). 5 Transmission and Pathophysiology[uspharmacist.com]
  • Pathophysiology The host immunologic mechanisms suppress replication of the virus. Reactivation can occur if host immune mechanisms are compromised.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention is paramount to management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present this case to increase awareness among clinicians on the atypical manifestations of VZV and prevent complications by early diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finally, we discuss screening strategies and promising preventive measures against VZV infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Good hygiene (e.g., daily baths, preferably with antibacterial soap) and thorough skin care are important for the prevention of secondary bacterial infections. 1 The child’s fingernails should also be cut short in an effort to prevent secondary bacterial[uspharmacist.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!