Viral conjunctivitis is a benign yet highly contagious eye condition that usually resolves spontaneously.
The clinical presentation includes conjunctival hyperemia, watery discharge, swelling, sticking of the eyelids, and pruritus of the affected eye(s). Additionally, they may exhibit enlarged and tender preauricular lymph nodes, which is prevalent in patients with viral conjunctivitis . Severe episodes involving the cornea will result in photophobia and foreign body sensation. Moreover, corneal opacities and pseudomembrane formation cause visual impairment.
This is highly contagious and usually follows contact with an infected person. It can also develop after a recent upper respiratory infection. There may be a simultaneous infection of both eyes or a subsequent involvement of the other eye a few days later.
Inspection of the eye includes findings such as redness, edematous eyelid, watery discharge, subconjunctival hemorrhages, punctuate keratopathy, and the presence of pseudomembrane. Lymphadenopathy is another common feature. Furthermore, microcysts on the cornea are indicative of viral conjunctivitis.
The diagnosis is confirmed through assessment of the clinical presentation and an ocular exam. The clinician should obtain full details about the onset, timing, symptoms, history of recent viral illnesses, and possible exposure.
Most cases do not warrant laboratory testing as testing can take time, can be costly, and inconvenient  . Severe cases where there is suspicion of orbital cellulitis warrant a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and possibly other immunologic studies. Additional diagnostic tools such a slit lamp test are performed in patients with photophobia.
The therapeutic approach includes supportive measures such as the use of cold compresses, artificial tears, topical antihistamines, and topical vasoconstrictors although the latter two are not typically beneficial. There is no indication for antivirals  or antibiotics . Patients with visual defects or photophobia may be treated with topical steroids.
Due to the high risk of transmission, children and adults should not attend school or work until the infection has resolved. If symptoms persist beyond 7 to 10 days, patients will require an ophthalmology consult .
Viral conjunctivitis typically resolves within 2 to 4 weeks. Patients may have subepithelial infiltrates for a few months which may affect vision.
This eye disease is prevalent worldwide. It affects families, schools, workplaces, healthcare facilities, etc. It especially occurs in the summer .
This contagious condition is transmitted through contact with contaminated hands, objects, or even respiratory droplets. The communicable period ranges from 10 days to 2 weeks .
Since this can spread rapidly in schools, workplaces, and other facilities, precautions must be implemented. Proper handwashing and other hygiene practices should be undertaken. Also, clinics should disinfect contaminated instruments and isolate patients in order to prevent transmission  .
Viral conjunctivitis is very common as it is responsible for the majority of cases of infectious conjunctivitis. The clinical picture is variable but usually features unilateral or bilateral eye involvement with redness, watery discharge, and swelling. This self-limiting disease does not warrant treatment and typically resolves in 2 to 4 weeks. All affected individuals should practice good hygiene and avoid attending school and workplaces.
What is viral conjunctivitis?
This is a condition known as "pink eye." It is very contagious and can be easily spread in schools, workplaces, and other locations through contaminated hands, objects, or air droplets.
What are the signs and symptoms?
How is it diagnosed?
Doctors diagnose this disease by asking about the history and symptoms as well as performing an eye exam.
How is it treated?
The goal is to provide symptom relief with:
Patients must avoid going to school or work. They should also practice handwashing and good hygiene.