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Viral Disease


Presentation

  • A case of hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in a patient who presented with a pharyngeal mucosal mass lesion as a manifestation of superadded Leishmania infection is presented here.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bacterial and viral infections often present with similar symptoms. Etiologic misdiagnosis can alter the trajectory of patient care, including antibiotic overuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the last decade numerous reports have presented data, often conflicting, which clearly demonstrate a role for TNF in the response to infections caused by viruses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review presents recent developments in the field of aptamer research and focuses on their applications to human viral diseases, particularly HIV induced diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cough
  • In the human body, the virus causes severe coughing and wheezing, especially in children. Ribavirin may be administered to lessen the severity of disease.[cliffsnotes.com]
  • Like influenza, SARS leads to fever and cough, and is mostly spread by close contact between people.[theconversation.com]
  • […] scenarios Disease - Measles (also called rubeola, not to be confused with rubella) Caused by Morbillivirus Image courtesy CDC Signs and Symptoms : Respiratory system infection, fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes, skin rash.[biotopics.co.uk]
  • Prevention of the spread of harmful viruses that cause viral infection also includes frequent hand washing and covering the mouth and nose with a tissue during sneezing or coughing.[indswift.wordpress.com]
  • Washing your hands and covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze can help reduce the spread of the virus. Rubella Known as the virus that causes German measles , rubella can cause viral heart infection.[healthline.com]
Rhinorrhea
  • […] drinks • helps decrease salivary gland discomfort  as with measles rubella, best results come from prior vaccination 77. (6) Herpangina begins with an acute onset of significant  sore throat  dysphagia  fever  ocassionally accompanied by cough  rhinorrhea[slideshare.net]
Fever
  • Inclusion criteria included fever  37.5 C, symptom duration  12 days, and presentation with respiratory infection or fever without source. Comparator method was based on expert panel adjudication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Three patients with only HHV6 DNA in urine or serum had fever and abnormal liver function but not neutropenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The government’s disease monitoring arm, IEDCR, has asked people to be aware of the viral infection that has some similarities with dengue fever caused by Aedes Aegypti mosquito. Shaiful Hassan Shameem has been struggling to bring his fever down.[bdnews24.com]
  • […] activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain
  • Nerve pain due to shingles can sometimes persist for weeks to years after the rash heals. This painful, post viral condition is known as post-herpetic neuralgia.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Both dengue and Chikungunya show some common symptoms such as fever, pain. “But in Chikungunya the pain is so severe that people cannot move. It involves all the joints,” Dr Alamgir said.[bdnews24.com]
  • Clinical criteria, which includes fever of greater than 38.6 degrees Celsius or 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit, and additional symptoms such as severe headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or unexplained bleeding; AND 2.[escambia.floridahealth.gov]
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to reduce fever and relieve some symptoms In severe cases, patients often need to be hospitalized to receive supportive treatment, such as intravenous fluids, pain medication, and nursing care.[indswift.wordpress.com]
Fatigue
  • CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that is not improved by bed rest and that may be worsened by physical or mental activity.[cdc.gov]
  • Common side effects include headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea.[drugs.com]
  • Infections, Viral Hepatitis, Viral, Animal Hepatitis, Viral, Human Meningitis, Viral Opportunistic Infections RNA Virus Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Skin Diseases, Viral Slow Virus Diseases Tumor Virus Infections Viremia Bronchiolitis, Viral Fatigue[hon.ch]
  • Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, and chest pains. It doesn’t usually cause death, but it may result in permanent heart damage, particularly if it recurs.[healthline.com]
Malaise
  • Zoster (Shingles) Clinical Features  (1) Prodome • pain develops in area of epithelium innervated by affected sensory nerve (dermatome) 41. (3) Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Clinical Features  (1) Prodome • accompanied by:  fever normally present  malaise[slideshare.net]
  • Symptoms of viral diseases can include: Flu- like symptoms (fatigue, fever, sore throat, headache, cough, aches and pains) Gastrointestinal disturbances, such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting Irritability Malaise (general ill feeling) Rash Sneezing Stuffy[indswift.wordpress.com]
  • […] the upper respiratory tract Disease - Chickenpox Caused by Varicella zoster virus Also see below Signs and Symptoms : Skin rash, muscle pain, nausea, fever, headache, sore throat, pain in both ears, complaints of pressure in head or swollen face, and malaise[biotopics.co.uk]
Loss of Appetite
  • If this early disease does not clear, chronic, long-term symptoms can include weight loss, poor appetite, fatigue, and painful joints. A simple blood test is all that is needed for a diagnosis, although some people may need a liver biopsy .[drugs.com]
Red Eye
  • Pseudomembranous colitis - Clostridium dificile (Bacterial - not viral) Psittacosis - Chlamydia psittaci (Bacterial - not viral) Back to Top Q Q fever - Coxiella burnetti (Rickettsial - not viral) Back to Top R Rabies - rabies virus ( Rhabdovirus ) Red[virology.net]
Myalgia
  • […] agent of polio, an infection of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord Coxsackie A virus (23 serotypes) - the agent of: herpangina; an infection of oral mucosal cells aseptic meningitis common cold, an upper respiratory tract infection epidemic myalgia[atsu.edu]
  • […] of 5 and 9 24. (2) Varicella (Chickenpox) Clinical Features  symptomatic phase usually begins with: • malaise • pahryngitis • rhinitis 25. (2) Varicella (Chickenpox) Clinical Features  in older children adults, additional symptoms: • headache • myalgia[slideshare.net]
Arthralgia
  • ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ross river virus - causes fever, rash, arthralgia Family Flaviviridae The name is taken from the Latin word flavus , meaning "yellow."[atsu.edu]
Headache
  • Common side effects include headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea.[drugs.com]
  • Disease - Flu (upper and occasionally lower respiratory system infection) Caused by Influenza virus Image courtesy CDC Signs and Symptoms : Chill, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, cough, fatigue, general discomfort More serious than the (common[biotopics.co.uk]
  • Most JE cases experience a mild fever or headaches. However, severe cases can be dangerous and lethal. The most affect groups are young children between 1-15 years old. JE is characterized by cyclic epidemics every two years.[who.int]
  • Severe infections are marked by a rapid onset, headache, high fever, confusion, tremors, seizures, paralysis, coma, or death.[health.ny.gov]
  • Clinical criteria, which includes fever of greater than 38.6 degrees Celsius or 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit, and additional symptoms such as severe headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or unexplained bleeding; AND 2.[escambia.floridahealth.gov]

Treatment

  • We review the current state of this field and discuss the potential advantages and problems with using a gene editing approach as a treatment for diseases caused by DNA viruses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This article reviews the epidemiology, biology, and latency of herpes zoster, discusses the pathophysiology of the disease, and describes treatment options with antivirals and corticosteroids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although reports of the photodynamic inactivation of viruses appeared in 1928, long before chemotherapeutic antiviral drugs, the first clinical trial in humans-the topical treatment of herpes genitalis-did not take place until the early 1970s.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Viekira Pak from AbbVie, a combination HCV treatment, was approved in December 2014. Viekira Pak is used for treatment of genotype 1a and 1b HCV in patients with or without cirrhosis.[drugs.com]
  • Improvements in viral detection, prophylaxis and treatment of established disease are helping to minimize the clinical impact of viral disease, but a definitive solution to this problem must await improvements in our ability to reconstitute an effective[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Herpes Simplex Virus Treatment & Prognosis  if infection is diagnosed early, antiviral medications can have significant influence 22. (2) Varicella (Chickenpox) similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV) chickenpox represents primary infection with VZV[slideshare.net]

Etiology

  • However, viral etiologies have been postulated for each disorder. The concomitant presence of both disorders in a patient suggests a common etiology, because a coincidental association would be exceedingly rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Viruses, through their direct and indirect effects on hematopoietic cells, are not only etiological agents of hematologic disease, but they both complicate transfusion therapy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Overall, cholangitis attributable to viral disease encompasses a wide spectrum of clinicopathologic scenarios, depending on the etiologic virus and the immune competence of the host.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiologic misdiagnosis can alter the trajectory of patient care, including antibiotic overuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "Coxsackievirus Infection as an Environmental Factor in the Etiology of Type 1 Diabetes." Autoimmun. Rev . 8.7 June 2009: 611-615. United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease." Dec. 22, 2017. .[medicinenet.com]

Epidemiology

  • We study the epidemiology of a viral disease with dose-dependent replication and transmission by nesting a differential-equation model of the within-host viral dynamics inside a between-host epidemiological model.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This article reviews the epidemiology, biology, and latency of herpes zoster, discusses the pathophysiology of the disease, and describes treatment options with antivirals and corticosteroids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jan Vinjé – Norovirus Laboratory Baoming Jiang – Rotavirus Vaccines and Immunology Michael Bowen – Rotavirus Surveillance and Molecular Epidemiology Aron Hall – Norvirus Epidemiology Polio and Picornavirus Laboratory Branch Steve Oberste – Chief Team[cdc.gov]
  • Any eradication initiative for malaria must incorporate flexible research agendas that can adapt to changing epidemiologic contingencies and allow planning for posteradication scenarios.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This manuscript focuses mainly on the experiences of two World Organisation for Animal Health collaborating centers in context to molecular diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of transboundary and endemic animal diseases of viral origin, food safety[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This article reviews the epidemiology, biology, and latency of herpes zoster, discusses the pathophysiology of the disease, and describes treatment options with antivirals and corticosteroids.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] flu pandemic reported a mortality rate of approximately 50% among infected pregnant women. [ 21 ] During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women accounted for 5% of all deaths and were more likely to be hospitalized than the general population. [22] Pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Furthermore, exosome analysis may prove to be important in understanding Ebola pathophysiology as Alix, the ESCRT protein important in directing proteins to endosomes, is necessary for viral budding [ 149 ].[link.springer.com]

Prevention

  • Development of nasal antibody treatments for humans is under way, and early clinical studies have confirmed that this approach is safe and can be used to prevent respiratory tract disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For influenza virus, special emphasis should be given to vaccination of hospital personnel before the influenza season to prevent and control nosocomial transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our Mission The Division of Viral Diseases’ (DVD) mission is to prevent disease, disability, and death from viral diseases through immunization and other prevention measures.[cdc.gov]
  • Prevention measures do not differ from those adopted against malaria parasite transmission. Effective vaccines and drugs are not available, but animal models suggest that vaccine candidates against CHIKV may also confer protection against ONNV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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