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Viral Hemorrhagic Fever


Presentation

  • We present herein the cases of two patients with VHF, arising in the same area, hospitalized for a short period of time. One patient presented with renal failure, while severe hepatic involvement was predominant in the other.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinical presentation is characterized by fever, malaise, increased vascular permeability, and coagulation defects that can result in bleeding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.[cdc.gov]
  • Additionally, antigen-presenting cells are targets of productive infection and immune dysregulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • American hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, but only in a small minority of patients with dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Lassa fever.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Abstract This short review covers 6 viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) that are known to occur in Africa: yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Marburg virus disease, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Both are mosquito-borne; yellow fever is found in tropical Africa and South America, and dengue fever is found in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Videos of viral hemorrhagic fevers ‎ (2カテゴリ) A Argentine hemorrhagic fever ‎ (1ファイル) C Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever ‎ (1カテゴリ、2ファイル) D Dengue ‎ (8カテゴリ、1ページ、81ファイル) E Ebolavirus ‎ (17カテゴリ、1ページ、59ファイル) L Lassa fever ‎ (1カテゴリ、1ファイル) M Marburg virus disease[commons.wikimedia.org]
  • Recombinant antigens of nine HFVs including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Puumala virus (PUUV), Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Severe fever with thrombocytopenia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Laboratory Technician
  • METHODS: A cross sectional convenience survey was conducted in February 2001 among doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians and janitors/orderlies of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Karachi.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intravenous Administration
  • Therapeutic trials should best start with intravenous administration of PHA since this is the mitogen about which most is known and the only one given to humans, although the nonagglutinating advantages of fraction i.v. of PHA should be evaluated as a[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rigor
  • […] effective 10/1/2015) : New code (first year of non-draft ICD-10-CM) 2017 (effective 10/1/2016) : No change 2018 (effective 10/1/2017) : No change 2019 (effective 10/1/2018) : No change Fever (inanition) (of unknown origin) (persistent) (with chills) (with rigor[icd10data.com]
Palatal Petechiae
  • The image below depicts palatal petechiae and hemorrhage in a patient with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Filovirus disease - Ebola fever. Patient with Ebola hemorrhagic fever during 1976 outbreak in Zaire demonstrating palatal petechiae and hemorrhage.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Petechiae
  • Skin petechiae may be noted.[visualdx.com]
  • The image below depicts palatal petechiae and hemorrhage in a patient with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Filovirus disease - Ebola fever. Patient with Ebola hemorrhagic fever during 1976 outbreak in Zaire demonstrating palatal petechiae and hemorrhage.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Manifestations of VHF often also include flushing of the face and chest, small red or purple spots (petechiae), bleeding, swelling caused by edema, low blood pressure (hypotension), and shock.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] number of different viruses of the families arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, flaviviridae, filoviridae, etc; some types of hemorrhagic fever are tick borne, others mosquito borne, and some seem to be zoonoses; clinical manifestations are high fever, scattered petechiae[icd10data.com]
Suggestibility
  • The arenavirus Lassa virus and the flavivirus yellow fever virus exhibit similar molecular pathogenesis suggesting common underlying mechanisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Isolation for affected patients was suggested by 65% nurses and 6% janitors. Knowledge regarding burial procedure of dead patients was low in all groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Extrapolation of this interaction with serum glycoproteins suggests that PHA given intravenously in adequate dosage should readily be able to block the deleterious Ebola virus glycoprotein effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epistaxis
  • Ecchymoses often are accompanied by hemorrhage in other locations: epistaxis, puncture sites, hematemesis, melena, and hematuria. Image provided by Robert Swaneopoel, PhD, DTVM, MRCVS, National Institute of Virology, Sandringham, South Africa.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] illness with fever and at least two of these symptoms: myalgia, low back pain, and headache, And the appearance of three or more of the following five groups of signs/symptoms: Hemorrhage (one or more petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, gingival bleeding, epistaxis[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • This patient presented to the health center on June 5, 2009 with headache, fever, abdominal pain, epistaxis, conjunctival injection, mouth bleeding, hematemesis, and diarrhea with blood.[doi.org]
Headache
  • Marburg – Fever, chills, cough, sore throat, headache, weakness, myalgias, chest pain, prostration, conjunctivitis, petechiae, purpura, and hemorrhage.[visualdx.com]
  • The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • According to the global health body, the illness caused by Marburg virus begins abruptly, with severe headache and malaise.[news.xinhuanet.com]
  • Symptoms may include fever, muscle and body aches, headache, and vomiting, as well as bleeding from the mouth, nose, or internal organs. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors do blood tests or sometimes examine infected tissue under a microscope.[merckmanuals.com]
  • According to the global health body, the illness caused by Marburg virus begins abruptly, with severe headache and malaise.(Xinhua/NAN) DOWNLOAD THE PUNCH NEWS APP NOW ON[punchng.com]

Workup

Decreased Plasma Volume
  • VHF is characterized by malaise, fever, vascular permeability, decreased plasma volume, coagulation abnormalities, and varying degrees of hemorrhage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Plasmodium Falciparum
  • The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different inactivation methods on the performance of rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium falciparum. Triton X-100 and gamma-irradiation of samples preserved detection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Prior studies of different experimental Marburg treatments involved daily dosing for 7 and 14 days, respectively, with treatment beginning closer to the time of infection.[genengnews.com]
  • This review focuses on these hemorrhagic fever viruses and specifically addresses therapeutic aspects and recent progress that has been made in the treatment of these viral pathogens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Two reliable forms of effective contraception must be used including one barrier method during treatment and during the 7 month post-treatment period.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Supportive treatment led to a successful outcome in both cases. We further discuss the difficulties in differential diagnosis of VHF from other zoonoses with similar endemicity, such as leptospirosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Generally there is no known cure or treatment for these diseases. People with these illnesses may get supportive treatment. This may include getting fluids or assistance with breathing and pain relievers.[hopkinsmedicine.org]

Etiology

  • The etiologic agents of the diseases, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Lassa virus, respectively, are categorized as viruses with biosafety level 4, because of their high mortality, high transmissibility and the lack of effective vaccines and therapeutic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The hemorrhagic fevers remained in the area for three centuries and the etiologic agent is still unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • .- ) Certain infectious and parasitic diseases Clinical Information A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all.[icd10data.com]
  • A blood sample was collected from the third surviving patient three days after symptom onset and sent to Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF) for etiological diagnosis.[doi.org]
  • Of particular concern is the use of this sampling technique as a means of establishing a particular etiology of a VHF outbreak when multiple agents must be considered and tested, many of which may not ever produce viral loads that can be detected by oral[dx.doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Please note that this tool builds upon and replaces the “Spatial epidemiology of Ebola virus disease” visualization. Interact with the data visualization Citation: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).[healthdata.org]
  • By collating and analyzing epidemiological data from documented outbreaks, we observed that diagnostic delay contributes to epidemic size for Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. 2 University Teaching Hospital & National Virology Reference Laboratory, Lusaka, Zambia. 3 Ministry of Health, Republic of Zambia. 4 Division of Global Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive management and led to the recognition of several potentially useful antiviral agents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • The VHFs are associated with a high case-fatality rate but are readily prevented by well-known basic precautions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.[cdc.gov]
  • More Control and Prevention Includes references that provide information about the control and prevention of exposures to VHFs. More Additional Resources Provides links and references to additional resources related to VHFs.[osha.gov]

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