Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Viral Lower Respiratory Infection

Viral Lower Resptry Infection


Presentation

  • The most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) present in 49 (32%) of the total viral isolates. This was followed by parainfluenza virus present in 43(28%) of the isolates.[bps.uonbi.ac.ke]
  • The usual presentation of viral respiratory tract infections (VRTI) includes fever, malaise, wheezing and or coughing, rhinorrhea and loss of appetite. Up to 50% of children will have at least one viral-induced wheezing illness by school age.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The age at LRTI presentation also did not differ significantly between those who were and were not admitted, the mean age in both groups being 4.2 months (p 0.91).[thorax.bmj.com]
  • Chlamydial pneumonia, which may be accompanied by chlamydial conjunctivitis (presents in the second or third week). Infants present with: Cough (the most common symptom after the first four weeks). Tachypnoea (according to severity). Grunting.[patient.info]
  • Most children presenting with preschool wheeze can be managed with parental reassurance, adequate hydration, and symptomatic management.[dovepress.com]
Disability
  • Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Inclusion Criteria: The presence of acute viral respiratory disease Exclusion Criteria: Evidence of chronic cardio-pulmonary disease, immune-suppression or any chronic systemic disease or disability[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • […] as to appropriately reassure or refer early to specialist services. 2 It is also important that neonatal community nurses support parents in the community through regular home visits, arranging a ready supply of medicines or special feeds at home and disability[dovepress.com]
Anorexia
  • More general features of infection are: fever , rigors , malaise , tachycardia usually secondary to hypovolaemia, confusion (in elderly), and occasionally anorexia . Don't forget to look for sepsis ![medrevise.co.uk]
Cough
  • Acupuncture's effect on acute viral induced wheezing and cough in hospitalized children has yet to be studied.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Practicing the elbow cough or sneeze is a good way to prevent the spread of these droplets.[fastmed.com]
  • The following symptoms may occur Abnormal fatigue A sore, painful throat A blocked and/ or runny nose A Headache A slight temperature Cough Especially coughing is a very unpleasant symptom.[montavit.com]
  • You can usually treat your symptoms at home. get plenty of rest drink lots of water to loosen any mucus and make it easier to cough up drink a hot lemon and honey drink to help soothe a cough (not suitable for babies) gargle with warm salty water if you[nhs.uk]
Hoarseness
  • […] obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, asthma, influenza, viral syndrome, respiratory failure and congestive heart failure with infection, pneumonia or symptoms of wheezing, dyspnea, cough, sputum production, nasal congestion, sore throat, and/or hoarseness[contagionlive.com]
  • If laryngitis develops (larynx voice box itis inflammation), the patient may lose their voice or become hoarse. It is often difficult to know the difference between an acute upper respiratory infection and influenza (seasonal flu ).[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Tonsillitis usually presents with a sore throat that can feel worse when swallowing, high temperature ( 38 C), coughing, hoarseness of voice, and headache. 33 Symptoms usually last for 3–4 days before the child recovers.[dovepress.com]
Dry Cough
  • It starts suddenly, with a high temperature, a sore throat or a dry cough, as well as sore muscles and joints, and back pain or a headache. The person suffering from the infection often feels weak.[montavit.com]
  • These include: Congested or runny nose Dry cough Low-grade fever Sore throat Mild headache In severe cases Respiratory syncytial virus infection can spread to the lower respiratory tract, causing pneumonia or bronchiolitis — inflammation of the small[mayoclinic.org]
Acute Cough
  • cough and respiratory tract infection in primary care [ 7 ] .[patient.info]
Loss of Appetite
  • The usual presentation of viral respiratory tract infections (VRTI) includes fever, malaise, wheezing and or coughing, rhinorrhea and loss of appetite. Up to 50% of children will have at least one viral-induced wheezing illness by school age.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • If you are feeling feverish, and if you have body aches, a cough with phlegm, congestion, tightness in the chest and a loss of appetite, you may have one of these conditions.[health.howstuffworks.com]
Arthritis
  • In a comparable example, rare nonsynonymous variants in TYK2 , a known primary immunodeficiency gene, were shown to be protective against rheumatoid arthritis ( 31 ).[pnas.org]
Aura
  • Feikin DR, Njenga MK, Bigogo G, Aura B, Aol G, et al. (2012) Etiology and Incidence of Viral and Bacterial Acute Respiratory Illness among Older Children and Adults in Rural Western Kenya, 2007–2010. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43656.[journals.plos.org]

Workup

  • Investigations included an extensive etiological workup on nasopharyngeal aspirates. Immunofluorescence technique was used to detect the viral pathogens.[academicjournals.org]
Decreased Platelet Count
  • platelet count 15 ), developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; oxygen dependency beyond 28 days) and/or received palivizumab.[thorax.bmj.com]
C-Reactive Protein Increased
  • protein, increased or decreased neutrophil count and/or decreased platelet count 15 ), developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; oxygen dependency beyond 28 days) and/or received palivizumab.[thorax.bmj.com]

Treatment

  • Currently treatment of VRTI is essentially supportive and no specific and efficient treatments are known.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Surfactant and small interfering RNAs may be promising treatment options in the future. Prospective studies however are needed to demonstrate their effect.[nvic.nl]
  • […] less than 1 year of age need to be admitted to hospital with moderate or severe viral lower respiratory tract infection. 2 This review gives an update of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, with special emphasis on treatment[bmj.com]
  • Treatments Treatments Treatment for lung infections depends on how severe the illness is and whether the infection is bacterial, viral or fungal. Most bacterial infections are treated with a full course of prescribed antibiotics.[rileychildrens.org]
  • Let us recommend appropriate treatment to lessen the severity and duration of your symptoms. What Causes Respiratory Infections? Respiratory infections quickly spread from one person to another.[fastmed.com]

Prognosis

  • Complications and prognosis Complete resolution after treatment should be expected in the vast majority of cases.[patient.info]
  • Upper Respiratory Infection Prognosis (Outlook) Upper respiratory infections are a common occurrence and most people will get two to four colds per year.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • It is recommended that future surveys of the microbial etiology of pneumonia that employ a credible reference standard (such as lung aspiration) be used as opportunities to perform studies of diagnostic accuracy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Characteristics of Patients with Laboratory Confirmed Viral Etiologies Of 28,369 hospitalized ALRI patients tested for the seven viral etiologies, 10,387 (36.6%) were positive for at least one etiology.[journals.plos.org]
  • There is little information on the viral and bacterial etiology of severe pneumonia in Sudan where the disease burden is particularly high.[academicjournals.org]
  • Etiologic understanding is needed to improve clinical management and prevention, particularly in resource-limited tropical countries.[research.pasteur.fr]
  • The main purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of viral etiology in ALRI and the concerned virus strains. Some are preventable through chemoprophylaxis or immunoprophylaxis and costs attributable to care could be averted.[bps.uonbi.ac.ke]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, adenovirus, and parainfluenza virus in the Netherlands, 1997-2003 Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses Worldwide, respiratory syncytial virus is … View Full Text[bmj.com]
  • 4.25; 95%CI, 1.4-13), better functionality (OR, 4; 95%CI, 1.3-14.15), and leucocyte count URI: ISSN: 0934-9723 Publication status: published KU Leuven publication type: IT Appears in Collections: Gerontology and Geriatrics Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological[lirias.kuleuven.be]
  • Diagnosis Typically, clinical evaluation and local epidemiology Sometimes diagnostic testing Viral respiratory infections are typically diagnosed clinically based on symptoms and local epidemiology.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The majority of the studies contributing data on the epidemiology of the etiologic agents of ALRIs are from industrialized countries.[journals.plos.org]
  • Tesini, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Associate Hospital Epidemiology, Strong Memorial Hospital and Golisano Children's Hospital, University[msdmanuals.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Developmental aspects of respiratory anatomy and mechanics are of great importance in the pathophysiology of LRTI and explain why children with the condition are more susceptible to respiratory insufficiency compared to adults.[nvic.nl]
  • Epidemiology Has incidence of 1-3/1000 and, of those admitted to hospital the mortality is 10% Pathophysiology Basically, viruses or bacteria gets into your lower respiratory tract and you get an infection. Go figure.[medrevise.co.uk]
  • Pathophysiology There is no hard and fast definition of LRTI that is universally agreed upon. Essentially, it is inflammation of the airways/pulmonary tissue, due to viral or bacterial infection, below the level of the larynx.[patient.info]

Prevention

  • Etiologic understanding is needed to improve clinical management and prevention, particularly in resource-limited tropical countries.[research.pasteur.fr]
  • Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities for drawing up further plans to prevent and control of respiratory virus associated ALRIs.[journals.plos.org]
  • Some are preventable through chemoprophylaxis or immunoprophylaxis and costs attributable to care could be averted. It was hoped that the results of the study would be of use in local guidelines on management of ALRI.[bps.uonbi.ac.ke]
  • […] year of age need to be admitted to hospital with moderate or severe viral lower respiratory tract infection. 2 This review gives an update of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, with special emphasis on treatment and prevention[bmj.com]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!