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Viral Lower Respiratory Infection

Viral LRTI


Presentation

  • The most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) present in 49 (32%) of the total viral isolates. This was followed by parainfluenza virus present in 43(28%) of the isolates.[bps.uonbi.ac.ke]
  • Therefore, we applied three different laboratory methods, and presented the different virus prevalence patterns detected by each method.[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]
  • Interestingly, all but 1 of 15 LRTI patients presenting a positive bacteriology also showed serological signs of acute viral infection.[karger.com]
  • The usual presentation of viral respiratory tract infections (VRTI) includes fever, malaise, wheezing and or coughing, rhinorrhea and loss of appetite. Up to 50% of children will have at least one viral-induced wheezing illness by school age.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • A unique presentation of ANE has not previously been reported in association with an RSV infection. All patients had a positive outcome and recovered fully with supportive management. Issues[platform.almanhal.com]
Cough
  • Acupuncture's effect on acute viral induced wheezing and cough in hospitalized children has yet to be studied.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The following symptoms may occur Abnormal fatigue A sore, painful throat A blocked and/ or runny nose A Headache A slight temperature Cough Especially coughing is a very unpleasant symptom.[montavit.com]
  • You can usually treat your symptoms at home. get plenty of rest drink lots of water to loosen any mucus and make it easier to cough up drink a hot lemon and honey drink to help soothe a cough (not suitable for babies) gargle with warm salty water if you[nhs.uk]
  • If you have any of the following symptoms then you should see a doctor within 48 hours: coughing up blood or bloody mucus fever, cough and feeling generally unwell chest pain cough lasting more than three weeks unexplained weight loss lumps in your neck[your.md]
Hoarseness
  • […] obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, asthma, influenza, viral syndrome, respiratory failure and congestive heart failure with infection, pneumonia or symptoms of wheezing, dyspnea, cough, sputum production, nasal congestion, sore throat, and/or hoarseness[contagionlive.com]
  • If laryngitis develops (larynx voice box itis inflammation), the patient may lose their voice or become hoarse. It is often difficult to know the difference between an acute upper respiratory infection and influenza (seasonal flu ).[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Often preceded by coryzal symptoms, followed by fever, hoarseness, cough and signs of upper airway obstruction, namely stridor. This condition may be life threatening in young children.[virology.uct.ac.za]
  • Tonsillitis usually presents with a sore throat that can feel worse when swallowing, high temperature ( 38 C), coughing, hoarseness of voice, and headache. 33 Symptoms usually last for 3–4 days before the child recovers.[dovepress.com]
Acute Cough
  • NICE has produced new guidance on antimicrobial prescribing for acute cough [ 8 ].[patient.info]
  • Over-the-counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(4):CD001831. 23. Smucny J, Flynn C, Becker L, Glazier R. Beta2-agonists for acute bronchitis.[aafp.org]
  • "Beta2-agonists for acute cough or a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD001726. doi : 10.1002/14651858.CD001726.pub5. PMID 26333656. a b Wark P (July 2015). "Bronchitis (acute)".[en.wikipedia.org]
Dry Cough
  • It starts suddenly, with a high temperature, a sore throat or a dry cough, as well as sore muscles and joints, and back pain or a headache. The person suffering from the infection often feels weak.[montavit.com]
  • A cough medicine may help to soothe a ticklish or dry cough. Over-the-counter (OTC) products that are available from your local pharmacist are often sold as combined remedies for treating a cough and cold.[hse.ie]
Neglect
  • The fact that viral infections are difficult to treat should not lead to neglecting the diagnosis. Viral LRTI in early infancy was indicated to induce a predisposition to develop wheezing and asthma [ 17 ].[karger.com]
Aura
  • Feikin DR, Njenga MK, Bigogo G, Aura B, Aol G, et al. (2012) Etiology and Incidence of Viral and Bacterial Acute Respiratory Illness among Older Children and Adults in Rural Western Kenya, 2007–2010. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43656.[journals.plos.org]

Workup

  • Investigations included an extensive etiological workup on nasopharyngeal aspirates. Immunofluorescence technique was used to detect the viral pathogens.[academicjournals.org]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • Danés C, González-Martín J, Pumarola T, Rañó A, Benito N, Torres A, Moreno A, Rovira M, Puig de la Bellacasa J: Pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients: analysis of a diagnostic protocol. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:2134–2140.[karger.com]
Decreased Platelet Count
  • platelet count 15 ), developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; oxygen dependency beyond 28 days) and/or received palivizumab.[thorax.bmj.com]
C-Reactive Protein Increased
  • protein, increased or decreased neutrophil count and/or decreased platelet count 15 ), developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; oxygen dependency beyond 28 days) and/or received palivizumab.[thorax.bmj.com]
Blood Culture Positive
  • Eight CAP patients presented positive blood cultures. Positive bacterial culture in respiratory specimens was found in 12 COPD patients with exacerbation, in 11 CAP patients and in 1 patient with acute bronchitis.[karger.com]
  • According to our previous study, there was a high rate of antibiotic usage before hospitalisation and thus blood culture-positive rates were very low ( 30 ]. Therefore, we did not conduct blood culture testing in this study.[erj.ersjournals.com]

Treatment

  • Currently treatment of VRTI is essentially supportive and no specific and efficient treatments are known.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Surfactant and small interfering RNAs may be promising treatment options in the future. Prospective studies however are needed to demonstrate their effect.[nvic.nl]
  • […] less than 1 year of age need to be admitted to hospital with moderate or severe viral lower respiratory tract infection. 2 This review gives an update of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, with special emphasis on treatment[bmj.com]
  • This would help in patient management, treatment and prevention of virus spreading. We are aware that the available diagnostic tools for point of care diagnosis are not optimal and we are also aware that virus therapy has to be further improved.[karger.com]
  • Treatments Treatments Treatment for lung infections depends on how severe the illness is and whether the infection is bacterial, viral or fungal. Most bacterial infections are treated with a full course of prescribed antibiotics.[rileychildrens.org]

Prognosis

  • Rhinosinusitis The prognosis is generally favorable for acute rhinosinusitis, and many cases appear to resolve even without antibiotic therapy.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Complications and prognosis Complete resolution after treatment should be expected in the vast majority of cases.[patient.info]
  • Upper Respiratory Infection Prognosis (Outlook) Upper respiratory infections are a common occurrence and most people will get two to four colds per year.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • It is recommended that future surveys of the microbial etiology of pneumonia that employ a credible reference standard (such as lung aspiration) be used as opportunities to perform studies of diagnostic accuracy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Characteristics of Patients with Laboratory Confirmed Viral Etiologies Of 28,369 hospitalized ALRI patients tested for the seven viral etiologies, 10,387 (36.6%) were positive for at least one etiology.[journals.plos.org]
  • There is little information on the viral and bacterial etiology of severe pneumonia in Sudan where the disease burden is particularly high.[academicjournals.org]
  • Viral etiology accounted for 39-62% of the cases while S. pneumoniae accounted for 37% of the cases.[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]
  • Etiologic understanding is needed to improve clinical management and prevention, particularly in resource-limited tropical countries.[research.pasteur.fr]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, adenovirus, and parainfluenza virus in the Netherlands, 1997-2003 Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses Worldwide, respiratory syncytial virus is … View Full Text[bmj.com]
  • 4.25; 95%CI, 1.4-13), better functionality (OR, 4; 95%CI, 1.3-14.15), and leucocyte count URI: ISSN: 0934-9723 Publication status: published KU Leuven publication type: IT Appears in Collections: Gerontology and Geriatrics Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological[lirias.kuleuven.be]
  • The majority of the studies contributing data on the epidemiology of the etiologic agents of ALRIs are from industrialized countries.[journals.plos.org]
  • Epidemiological and clinical study of viral respiratory tract infections in children from Italy. J Med Virol. 2009; 81(4):750-756. 4- Cane PA. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus.[scla.org.sy]
  • Typically, clinical evaluation and local epidemiology Sometimes diagnostic testing Viral respiratory infections are typically diagnosed clinically based on symptoms and local epidemiology.[merckmanuals.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Developmental aspects of respiratory anatomy and mechanics are of great importance in the pathophysiology of LRTI and explain why children with the condition are more susceptible to respiratory insufficiency compared to adults.[nvic.nl]
  • Epidemiology Has incidence of 1-3/1000 and, of those admitted to hospital the mortality is 10% Pathophysiology Basically, viruses or bacteria gets into your lower respiratory tract and you get an infection. Go figure.[medrevise.co.uk]
  • Pathophysiology There is no hard and fast definition of LRTI that is universally agreed upon. Essentially, it is inflammation of the airways/pulmonary tissue, due to viral or bacterial infection, below the level of the larynx.[patient.info]

Prevention

  • Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities for drawing up further plans to prevent and control of respiratory virus associated ALRIs.[journals.plos.org]
  • Etiologic understanding is needed to improve clinical management and prevention, particularly in resource-limited tropical countries.[research.pasteur.fr]
  • Some are preventable through chemoprophylaxis or immunoprophylaxis and costs attributable to care could be averted. It was hoped that the results of the study would be of use in local guidelines on management of ALRI.[bps.uonbi.ac.ke]
  • […] year of age need to be admitted to hospital with moderate or severe viral lower respiratory tract infection. 2 This review gives an update of viral lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, with special emphasis on treatment and prevention[bmj.com]

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