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Vulvovaginitis


Presentation

  • A 15-year retrospective review of prepubertal girls presenting with recurrent vaginal discharge found that sexual abuse might have been involved in about 5% of cases. 2 Systemic diseases, such as eczema and psoriasis, may also present with gynecologic[mdedge.com]
  • Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and lichen sclerosus may cause chronic vulvar dermatosis Psoriasis presents as red, nonscaly, pruritic plaques, sometimes isolated to the vulva.[cmaj.ca]
  • Presentation to medical services will also be influenced by the level of parental concern.[adc.bmj.com]
  • If the presenting complaint is mainly dyspareunia, pelvic muscle tone may need to be assessed.[patient.info]
  • Lactobacilli are believed to provide defense against infection in part by maintaining an acidic pH in the vagina and ensuring hydrogen peroxide is present in the environment.[ijogr.com]
Candidiasis
  • Placebo in Subjects With Acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Recruiting NCT03734991 Phase 3 Ibrexafungerp;Placebo 17 A Study of Oral VT-1161 for the Treatment of Acute Vaginal Candidiasis (Yeast Infection) in Patients With Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Recruiting[malacards.org]
  • Studies have shown that the prevalence of a variant MLB gene is higher in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis than in controls without candidiasis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The most common infectious causes of vaginitis in symptomatic women include bacterial vaginosis (22% to 50%), candidiasis (17% to 39%), and trichomoniasis (4% to 35%).[accessmedicine.mhmedical.com]
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by vulvovaginal itching, redness and discharge.[mdpi.com]
  • Three most common vaginal infections are: vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis.[ijogr.com]
Anemia
  • […] infection Swine pox Swine vesicular disease Teschen disease Transmissible gastroenteritis Diseases caused by parasites Ascariasis Coccidiosis Mange Metastrongylosis Trichinellosis Trichuriasis Nutritional deficiencies Biotin deficiency Iron deficiency anemia[pig333.com]
Wound Infection
  • It has been linked to many different obstetric and gynaecologic complications such as preterm labour and delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, postpartum endometritis, post-Caesarean delivery wound infections[ijogr.com]
Pathologist
  • The methodology for collecting cervicovaginal cytological samples is standard in our gynecology service, and the Papanicolaou method was used by the pathologist for the evaluations.[scielo.br]
Weight Loss
  • Ask him to help create a weight loss plan if she is overweight. When should I seek immediate care? Your child has a fever. Your child's vagina has a bloody discharge. Your child's vagina begins to bleed and it is not her monthly period.[drugs.com]
Sore Throat
  • Seven of the 17 patients (41%) had a recent history of sore throat and an additional patient had a sister with recurrent tonsillitis. In two cases a coinfection with Staphylococcus aureus was found.[adc.bmj.com]
Rhinitis
  • Diseases caused by bacteria App Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Mycoplasma suis Actinobacillosis Anthrax Atrophic Rhinitis Bordetelosis Brucellosis Colibacillosis Colitis Edema disease Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) Erysipela Exudative Epidermitis[pig333.com]
Petechiae
  • Some may exhibit hemorrhagic spots (petechiae) on the genital mucosa, referred to as Colpitis macularis (strawberry cervix). Men tend to have fewer symptoms than women and can therefore serve as asymptomatic vectors for infection.[ijogr.com]
Osteoporosis
  • […] vesicular disease Teschen disease Transmissible gastroenteritis Diseases caused by parasites Ascariasis Coccidiosis Mange Metastrongylosis Trichinellosis Trichuriasis Nutritional deficiencies Biotin deficiency Iron deficiency anemia Mulberry heart disease Osteoporosis[pig333.com]
Neglect
  • American Academy of Paediatrics, Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Guidelines for the evaluation of sexual abuse of children: subject review (RE9819). Pediatrics 1999; 103 : 186-91 [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 21.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tremor
  • Nutritional deficiencies Biotin deficiency Iron deficiency anemia Mulberry heart disease Osteoporosis, ricketts, Vit D deficiency Toxicoses Aflatoxicosis Ergotism Fumonisin toxicosis Salt poisoning Zearalenone toxicosis Other Atresia ani Congenital Tremor[pig333.com]
Forgetful
  • Sometimes chidren wait too long to go to the bathroom Children who are playing often forget to go to the bathroom until the last minute. Sometimes they do not wipe themselves properly.[aboutkidshealth.ca]
Vaginal Bleeding
  • You notice vaginal bleeding. Your child has pain or burning when urinating, and is urinating more often. You have other concerns or questions. Symptoms return.[childrensmn.org]
  • The most common symptoms are blood-stained or foul-smelling vaginal discharge or vaginal bleeding.[jnsmonline.org]
  • Vaginal foreign bodies cause an intense inflammation, resulting in vaginal bleeding and foul smelling, blood stained vaginal discharge. These cases were not included in the study.[adc.bmj.com]
  • Exclusion criteria were the presence of vaginal bleeding, pregnancy, intercourse in the last 24 hours and the use of antibiotic or immunosuppressive drugs in the last month.[oatext.com]
  • However, vaginal bleeding after established menopause may be serious and requires investigation as it may be an important sign of early cervical or endometrial cancer.[dermnetnz.org]

Treatment

  • Therefore, treatment is usually reserved for women with bothersome symptoms. The treatments for bacterial vaginosis recommended in Canada in the PHAC’s guidelines on STI are presented in Table below.[ijogr.com]
  • It is a good idea to check with a doctor before starting boric acid treatment. Takeaway Treatment for vulvovaginitis depends on the cause, and some cases may go away without treatment.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Treatment consists of administration of antibiotics or antifungals (depending on the pathogen).[amboss.com]
  • Treatment Treatment will typically involve the use of antifungal medication, which will usually take the form of an oral tablet and/or topical skin cream. Following treatment, most cases of thrush will resolve in a few days.[ada.com]
  • Determining the cause is key to successful treatment.[consultqd.clevelandclinic.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis Most cases of pruritus resolve once the correct diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment instituted. The prognosis will depend on the underlying condition causing the vulvitis.[patient.info]
  • Expectations (prognosis) Proper treatment of an infection is usually very effective.[indiatoday.in]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Proper treatment of an infection is effective in most cases.[ufhealth.org]
  • Outlook (Prognosis) Proper treatment of an infection is most often very effective. Prevention Keep your genital area clean and dry when you have vaginitis. Avoid soap. Just rinse with water to clean yourself.[account.allinahealth.org]

Etiology

  • This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of NAC vulvovaginitis.[mdpi.com]
  • May try topical antibiotics or low potency steroids If there is any suspicion of abuse, cultures should be obtained with the proper culture media to try to delineate a specific etiology. References Kokotos, Faye, and Henry M. Adam. Vulvovaginitis.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
  • While many theories have been proposed, the etiology of this condition remains unknown.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • System(s) affected: reproductive, skin/exocrine Synonym(s): vaginitis; vulvitis Epidemiology Incidence Unknown Prevalence Most common gynecologic problem in prepubertal girls Etiology and Pathophysiology In the prepubertal child, the levels of estrogen[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Table 2: Etiology of prepubertal vulvovaginitis percentage of microorganism isolates Click here to view Unfortunately, we do not have studies in Saudi Arabia about prepubertal vulvovaginitis and its etiological factors.[jnsmonline.org]

Epidemiology

  • Differential diagnoses of infectious vulvovaginitis Bacterial vulvovaginitis Bacterial vaginosis Epidemiology : most common vaginal infection in women (40–45% of all cases) Pathogen : Gardnerella vaginalis (a gram-variable rod) (Gram-variable) Pathogenesis[amboss.com]
  • The epidemiology and presentation of vulvovaginitis differ in prepubescent and adolescent girls.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • System(s) affected: reproductive, skin/exocrine Synonym(s): vaginitis; vulvitis Epidemiology Incidence Unknown Prevalence Most common gynecologic problem in prepubertal girls Etiology and Pathophysiology In the prepubertal child, the levels of estrogen[unboundmedicine.com]
  • Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(5):1060-6. [ Links ] 36. Nai GA, Mello ALP, Ferreira AD, Barbosa RL.[scielo.br]
  • Epidemiology Exact figures are not available because the term covers so many different conditions and many women self-treat and do not consult a health professional. Females of all ages are affected, from prepubertal girls to the elderly.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • System(s) affected: reproductive, skin/exocrine Synonym(s): vaginitis; vulvitis Epidemiology Incidence Unknown Prevalence Most common gynecologic problem in prepubertal girls Etiology and Pathophysiology In the prepubertal child, the levels of estrogen[unboundmedicine.com]
  • […] by an alkaline vaginal discharge may lead to chronic irritation and inflammation Other - Some authors have associated vulvar vestibulitis with a history of sexual abuse, elective abortions, severe marital conflicts, depression, and anxiety Neurologic pathophysiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology Prepubertal girls are susceptible to vulvovaginitis due to behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic predisposing factors.[jnsmonline.org]

Prevention

  • Prevention There are a number of practices and habits that are thought to help prevent vaginal thrush. It should be noted, however, that these practices are not medically proven to be effective and may only be useful in some cases.[ada.com]
  • Good hygiene is the best way to prevent non-infectious vulvovaginitis. Wearing comfortable clothing that absorbs moisture can also reduce infection. Using a condom can prevent most sexually transmitted forms of vulvovaginitis.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Removing underwear at bedtime may also help prevent vulvovaginitis. Proper cleansing is important and may help prevent irritation. This is especially true if the infection is bacterial.[healthline.com]
  • Prevention Use of a condom during sexual intercourse can prevent most sexually transmitted vaginal infections.[indiatoday.in]
  • Possible causes of pediatric vulvovaginitis include: Bacteria Irritation due to harsh soaps or chemicals Poor hygiene Tight clothing Yeast Viruses Allergic reaction Treatment and prevention of vaginitis or vulvovaginitis Once the cause of vulvovaginitis[nortonchildrens.com]

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