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VX Poisoning

Poisoning by Vx


Presentation

  • Hisyam Teh Poh Teik, Huong’s lawyer, said the defence has another explanation of why VX was present on the Vietnamese and would reveal this later.[theguardian.com]
  • Hisyam Teh Poh Teik, Huong's lawyer, said the defense has another explanation of why VX was present on the Vietnamese woman and that it would be revealed later.[latimes.com]
  • Hisyam Teh Poh Teik, Huong’s lawyer, said the defense has another explanation of why VX was present on the Vietnamese and would reveal this later.[denverpost.com]
  • On Wednesday, the judge and court officials wore face masks and surgical gloves as VX-tainted evidence was presented in court.[chicagotribune.com]
  • Given that Malaysia is one of the few friends of North Korea the diplomatic meltdown resulting from this incident has caused concern, particularly given North Korean remarks on its nuclear capabilities in missives presented to the Malaysian authorities[scientificamerican.com]
Falling
  • Kim died after falling ill on February 13 at Kuala Lumpur International Airport after two women allegedly wiped his face with the nerve agent.[risingbd.com]
  • Might the weapons fall into the wrong hands? See below for answers to these and other questions posed by this troubling development. What Is Sarin? Sarin, also known as GB, is a man-made nerve gas not found in nature.[webmd.com]
  • Munitions, devices and other equipment specifically designed to weaponise toxic chemicals also fall under the definition of chemical weapons.[opcw.org]
  • But Bruce Goldberger, a leading toxicologist who heads the forensic medicine division at the University of Florida, questions how no one else fell violently ill in the attack on Kim Jong-nam, who had been living abroad for years after falling out of favour[theglobeandmail.com]
Nasal Congestion
  • Symptoms of VX poisoning include constriction of the pupils, headache, runny nose, and nasal congestion, chest tightness, giddiness, anxiety, and nausea, eventually progressing to convulsions and respiratory failure.[science.jrank.org]
  • Symptoms of VX poisoning include constriction of the pupils, headache, runny nose, nasal congestion, chest tightness, giddiness, anxiety, and nausea, eventually progressing to convulsions and respiratory failure.[encyclopedia.com]
Drooling
  • People exposed to low, non-fatal doses of VX may experience increased heart rate, blurred vision, chest tightness, abnormally low or high blood pressure, drowsiness, nausea, diarrhea, drooling, pain and weakness.[usatoday.com]
  • Other symptoms Although asphyxiation is usually the ultimate cause of death, exposure to AChE inhibitors has a wide range of symptoms, including runny nose, drooling and contraction of the pupils.[theconversation.com]
  • Smaller, non-fatal doses can cause a wide range of symptoms that include increased heart rate, blurred vision, nausea, diarrhea, drooling, pain and weakness. Even just small doses can cause confusion and drowsiness.[cnn.com]
  • Autonomic nervous system symptoms include constricted pupils, reduced vision and other visual effects, drooling, sweating, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.[encyclopedia.com]
  • The result of this is involuntary crying, drooling and vomiting, all muscles start to have violent spasms, and the body starts to convulse.[imdb.com]
Foaming at the Mouth
  • Regarding the media reports that Kim had what appeared to be foam around his mouth, Nakagawa said in the letter, "Because VX causes an increase of secretion in the respiratory tract, I find no discrepancy in assuming that it was VX-triggered symptoms.[mainichi.jp]
  • But it then shows Kim walking apparently steadily to solicit help for several minutes, with none of the usual symptoms such as spasms or foaming at the mouth. The attacker was handling a cloth with no apparent protection, not wielding a syringe.[newscientist.com]
  • Excessive acetylcholine corroborates what has been reported and seen in the videos taken just after the attack, including uncontrolled salivation that will cause "foaming at the mouth," vomiting, tearing, involuntary defecation and urination, tiny pinpoint[tonic.vice.com]
  • “For example, if it’s a secretion in the mouth, it will make the person foam at the mouth,” he said. If it’s tear ducts, it will make you cry. if its muscles in the leg, it will make the muscles twitch.”[pbs.org]
Suggestibility
  • ., PTI Written By PTI Updated: Mar 1, 2017, 05:42 PM IST North Korea is strongly denying the findings of a Malaysian autopsy that suggest the deadly VX nerve agent was used to kill leader Kim Jong Un's half brother or "Kim Chol, a citizen of (North Korea[dnaindia.com]
  • Now, the preponderance of the facts suggest that it may be closer to becoming a reality. The threat that a warhead with WC or with radioactive materials, commonly known as “Dirty Head”, DH, cannot be set aside anymore as a very remote possibility.[chemsee.com]
  • Suggestions were made that some form of cyanide may have been used or more speculatively ricin. The media in Japan suggested tetrodotoxin as the agent.[scientificamerican.com]
  • Billy suggested one or two women apply the toxic substance to Kim's face from behind ... insight on reeds a hostile ... question still remained about how the attack is applied to chemical ... without harming themselves ... experts believe North Korea[wsj.com]
  • Looking at the events first, toxicology reports suggest Kim was killed by the nerve agent VX, classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations.[health.spectator.co.uk]
Fear
  • Asked if people should avoid the airport because of fears of contamination, Khalid said, "No. No. No. But I don't know. I am not the expert."[6abc.com]
  • Now that the poison has been identified, Kuala Lumpur airport is being swept for traces of it, and amid fears the public could be at risk of contamination, so are all other areas the two women are believed to have visited.[cbsnews.com]
  • Their indiscriminate nature and unpredictability, coupled with the sometimes-gruesome effects they have make them effective weapons of fear.[nationalinterest.org]
Panic Attacks
  • It should be noted that panic attacks around such events can result in injuries since many people try to escape the effected location.[chemsee.com]

Treatment

  • Under normal conditions, acetylcholine is released from the terminal axon of one nerve cell, crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells, and binds with a receptor on the membrane of the… Agent VX - Treatment Of Vx Poisoning Two antidotes exist for[science.jrank.org]
  • Externally, the body had minor marks of trauma on the upper and lower lips in the form of a bruise, abrasion and a small laceration that could have been caused while emergency medical treatment was being carried out, he said.[thestar.com.my]
  • Certain proteins have, for example, been shown to mediate organophosphate detoxification sufficiently rapidly to allow treatment of respective poisonings.[atlasofscience.org]
  • There is such a thing as “pre-treatment” for nerve agent poisoning.[bellingcat.com]
  • (One of the women did subsequently require treatment.)[livescience.com]

Prevention

  • This prevents acetylcholine that is in the synaptic cleft from binding to the receptor. Pralidoxime chloride prevents VX from binding to cholinesterase.[science.jrank.org]
  • A nerve agent, sometimes called nerve gas, acts on the nervous system of an organism and prevents muscles from functioning properly.[nytimes.com]
  • Image: OJO Images/REX/Shutterstock Nerve agents work by preventing the operation of an enzyme that acts as the body's "off-switch" for glands and muscles.[mashable.com]
  • Both strategies focus on the symptoms of organophosphate poisonings, whereas a third therapy not yet in use aims at preventing clinical symptoms altogether by detoxifying the organophosphate before it reaches its target.[atlasofscience.org]
  • The tasteless, odorless, viscous, motor-oil-like liquid kills by causing uncontrollable muscle spasms that eventually stop the heart, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[livescience.com]

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