Wound infection may occur after any kind of skin trauma that causes significant disruption of the skin and bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus sp. are the most common causes. Localized pain, edema and erythema are main symptoms. The diagnosis can be made during physical examination and wound swabs are needed to confirm the underlying cause. Treatment involves antibiotics and debridement.
Depending on the type of wound infection and its location, numerous signs and symptoms may be seen, but localized pain, erythema, increased temperature, edema, malodour, wound deterioration and breakdown are common clinical findings  . Either purulent or serous exudates may be observed as well, whereas systemic symptoms (fever, chills) indicate bacterial spread, which mandates an immediate diagnostic workup and initiation of empiric therapy .
The diagnosis can be made relatively easy by observing typical signs of wound infection during physical examination. To determine optimal therapy, however, it is necessary to identify the underlying pathogen and superficial wound swabs with subsequent cultivation of the samples is performed in most cases . In patients with suspected sepsis, blood cultures may be a good source as well. Once the cause is confirmed, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is mandated in order to assess the presence potential antimicrobial resistant, which has become a major problem in medical practice in recent years.
For localized uncomplicated infections, debridement of the wound with appropriate antimicrobial therapy based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Current guidelines suggest trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) or clindamycin as first-line empiric therapy in milder forms, whereas piperacillin-tazobactam, doripenem, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and vancomycin are used in severe infections that necessitate hospitalization and adequate supportive care . When highly resistant organisms are suspected, linezolid, daptomycin, telavancin and ceftaroline may be used before the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests arrive .
Most common causes of wound infection are  :
It must be mentioned that it is not uncommon for wound infection to be polymicrobial, i.e. more than one pathogen may colonize the wound and establish an infection .
Numerous factors have shown to play a role in the development of wound infection   :
Development of an infection on the site of the wound is a complex process involving several phases, but the principal event is disrupted integrity of the skin, allowing colonization of subcutaneous and soft tissues by microbial organisms. The degree of contamination and wound depth, but also the status of the immune system, determines the clinical presentation and the severity of symptoms .
Wound infection may be readily prevented , most effectively through meticulous methods of antiseptic care before, during and after surgical procedures. Appropriate wound care is the single most important factor that can reduce the number of infections.
Physical disruption of the normal skin may occur due to various forms of trauma (either accidental or hospital-induced - during surgical procedures, use of intravenous medical devices, pressure sores, etc) and can all predispose to infection of the wound by various microbial organisms . Most frequent pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis , but a myriad of bacterial organisms have been identified as potential causes. Several factors increase the risk of wound infection and its severity. Older age, repeated trauma, presence of an immunosuppressed disease and other comorbidities that impair normal wound healing , while characteristics of the wound (type, location, level of tissue perfusion and depth) are also notable factors . Wound infections may be either acute or chronic and can involve the skin or underlying soft tissues, giving symptoms such as pain, local erythema, edema, presence of pus or serous exudate, together with a foul odor and discoloration of granulation tissue . The diagnosis is made during physical examination and the source of trauma is determined through adequate patient history. Antibiotics and surgical debridement, when necessary, is used in therapy . The prognosis is good with early and appropriate treatment, but severe tissue destruction and an increased risk for severe forms of infection (sepsis) may occur if the condition is not recognized on time.
Various forms of trauma - accidents, animal bites and in-hospital procedures that cause damage to the skin and underlying tissues, can predispose individuals to an infection of the wound that was produced as a result of that trauma. Under physiological conditions, the main role of the skin is to serve as a barrier for microorganisms, but if there is a breach in the skin, the bacteria may enter the tissue and establish an infection. Notable risk factors for wound infection are older age, an immunosuppressed status, presence of comorbidities that impair normal wound healing (eg. diabetes mellitus, use of corticosteroids) and increased depth of the wound. If a wound is infected by bacteria (most commonly by Staphylococcus aureus), local redness, pain and heat, a foul odor from the wound and presence of pus are most common symptoms. The diagnosis is made during physical examination and a swab from the wound is obtained to determine which bacteria caused the infection. Debridement of the wound and antibiotics are used with great efficacy, but the diagnosis must be made early on, as dissemination of bacteria from the wound into the circulation can cause life-threatening sepsis. For this reason, great attention to wound care is necessary to reduce the risk of bacterial colonization.