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Xerostomia

Mouth Dryness

Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth.


Presentation

  • Preventive dietary and dental guidelines are presented to assist nutrition and dental professionals in treating and counseling patients with xerostomia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract This paper presents the etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, evaluation and treatment of mouth dryness. Xerostomia affects 1-29% of the population, mostly women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS There were 424 patients who presented signs and symptoms of both ocular and mouth dryness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hyposalivation was present in 59.7%, and xerostomia in 25.2% of subjects. 16.5% of subjects had both conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dental Caries
  • This study reviews the peripheral effects of methamphetamine on the salivary acini, the pathogenesis of methamphetamine-induced xerostomia, and its anecdotal relationship to dental caries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is especially true about the increase in dental caries. 2. Palliative treatment can be used but does not cure the condition: -pilocarpine (Salagen) 5mg, qid, prescription required.[web.archive.org]
  • Patients with chronic xerostomia may have multiple oral and dental consequences such as dental caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, ill-fitting dentures, and taste alterations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chronic dry mouth is not only uncomfortable, but it increases your risk for dental caries and makes it difficult for dentures to fit properly.[gotoapro.org]
Cracked Lips
  • A dry mouth can causes difficulty in speaking and swallowing, a burning or cracking tongue, cracked lips, mouth sores, reduction in the taste of flavors in food and drink, and pain.[dentistryiq.com]
  • Xerostomia was associated with: use of medications with hyposalivatory side-effects; difficulty with dry foods; cracked lips; dry eyes; difficulty swallowing; and, among males, current cigarette smoking.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Untreated xerostomia can lead to oral yeast infections, salivary gland infections, and dry and cracking lips and tongue. Therefore, early detection and treatment of xerostomia is important for patient health and well-being.[news-medical.net]
  • Patients may report a sore or burning sensation, cracked lips, and fissures in the corners of the lips. Normal saliva contains enzymes that protect the teeth and gums from bacteria, keeping them healthy.[oncolink.org]
Halitosis
  • The consequences of Xerostomia for the oral health are serious : oral lesions, dental caries, gingivits and periodontal disease, candidiasis and halitosis to name a few. It can also contribute to poor nutrition and psychological discomfort.[oralscience.com]
  • This condition can result in discomfort, interfere with speech and swallowing, make wearing dentures difficult, cause halitosis , and impair oral hygiene by causing a decrease in oral pH and an increase in bacterial growth.[msdmanuals.com]
  • Xerostomia can lead to dysgeusia, glossodynia, sialadenitis, cracking and fissuring of the oral mucosa, and halitosis. Oral dryness can affect denture retention, mastication, and swallowing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] more closely with symptoms of xerostomia than stimulated flow Diverse etiology includes idiopathic, autoimmune disease, drugs (anticholinergics), radiation therapy Causes increased dental caries, oral candidiasis, ascending sialadenitis, dysgeusia, halitosis[pathologyoutlines.com]
Dysgeusia
  • Xerostomia can lead to dysgeusia, glossodynia, sialadenitis, cracking and fissuring of the oral mucosa, and halitosis. Oral dryness can affect denture retention, mastication, and swallowing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] correlates more closely with symptoms of xerostomia than stimulated flow Diverse etiology includes idiopathic, autoimmune disease, drugs (anticholinergics), radiation therapy Causes increased dental caries, oral candidiasis, ascending sialadenitis, dysgeusia[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Dysgeusia – altered taste sensation (e.g., a metallic taste) and dysosmia, altered sense of smell.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The respective patients suffer from thirst, difficulties in speaking (dysphonia), chewing, tasting (dysgeusia), swallowing (dysphagia) and are at a very high risk for caries as well as for bacterial, viral or fungal infections of the oral mucosa.[zora.uzh.ch]
Sore Mouth
  • Highly recommended, will not cause cavities or sore mouth. Easy to carry, no drug interactions. This product is available at the Dental Pharmacy and does not require a prescription.[medicine.uiowa.edu]
  • mouth symptoms showed no statistically significant difference from placebo after a single dose.[doi.org]
Dysesthesia
  • Oral dysesthesia – a burning or tingling sensation in the mouth. Saliva that appears thick or ropey. Mucosa that appears dry. A lack of saliva pooling in the floor of the mouth during examination.[en.wikipedia.org]

Workup

Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a liver disease characterized by the development of necrosis, inflammatory changes, and progressive liver fibrosis, leading to complications including cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • On the other hand, US grading did not effectively predict treatment outcomes in non-SS patients, with treatment duration (β 0.199, t 2.486, P 0.014) and baseline salivary flow rate before treatment (β -0.172, t -2.159, P 0.032) being significant but weak[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In contrast to treatment options involving antimalarial drugs and methotrexate, there are no safety issues in patients tolerant to milk products.
.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Finally, a total of 26 trials were identified that met the previously defined selection and quality criteria; 14 related to drug treatments for dry mouth, 10 with non-pharmacological treatment and 2 with alternative treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This will involve using the risk assessment and treatment strategies outlined in the cariology course. -Establish if the patient is Xerostomic from symptoms and determine salivary flow rate.[web.archive.org]
  • We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The nature and extent of salivary gland disease is likely to vary between these participants with resultant variations in residual gland function, disease natural history and prognosis amongst participants.[doi.org]

Etiology

  • The underlying etiology of xerostomia includes a variety of systemic diseases and local factors. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive review of the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of xerostomia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Besides medication-related salivary hypofunction, Sjögren syndrome and head-and-neck radiation are two common etiologies that have garnered considerable attention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies for xerostomia, regardless of etiology, have so far not had definitive or clearly effective results.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] xerostomia [ ze″ro-sto me-ah ] dryness of the mouth from salivary gland dysfunction. xe·ro·sto·mi·a ( zē'rō-stō'mē-ă ), A dryness of the mouth, having a varied etiology, resulting from diminished or arrested salivary secretion, or asialism.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Epidemiology

  • In this brief review of the epidemiology of hyposalivation, the biology and functions of saliva are presented in order to guide clinical decision-making to address the needs of patients with dry mouth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence concerning the reliability of the XI-Sp, showing that it may be a useful tool for Spanish-speaking xerostomia patients for both clinical and epidemiologic research. 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Twenty one subjects that were part of the epidemiological screening for asymptomatic vascular diseases conducted in the Irwin Lab3 of Spoltore (PE / Italy) The degree of xerostomia for the admission had to be at least 2 according to a semi-quantal scale[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • The literature pertaining to xerostomia represented the disciplines of oral medicine, pathology, pharmacology, epidemiology, gerodontology, dental oncology, immunology and rheumatology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY : Studies epidemiologists " have demonstrated like, in general terms, the women are more subject to the xerostomia regarding the men . Also the possibility that is taken in consideration the menopause is xerostomia cause .[flipper.diff.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Lee M, Feldman M: Nausea and vomiting; in Feldman M, Scharschmidt B, Sleisenger M (eds): Sleisenger and Fordstran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management, ed. 6. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1998, pp 117-127.[doi.org]
  • Nutting, Radiation-induced Xerostomia: Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment, Clinical Oncology, 21, 10, (737), (2009). Zhong‐He Wang, Chao Yan, Zhi‐Yuan Zhang, Chen‐Ping Zhang, Hai‐Sheng Hu, Jessica Kirwan and William M.[doi.org]

Prevention

  • There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physicians should be consulted as early as possible and be encouraged to refer patients on xerostomic medications to the dental office for preventive care.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Preventive dietary and dental guidelines are presented to assist nutrition and dental professionals in treating and counseling patients with xerostomia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review discusses the current knowledge of salivary gland stem cells in radiation-induced xerostomia and their value in the prevention and treatment of this complication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Approaches to treating and/or preventing salivary hypofunction in patients with these conditions will likely incorporate gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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Last updated: 2019-07-11 22:36