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Yellow Fever Virus


Presentation

  • Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Recent outbreaks in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay and the observation that vectors capable of transmitting YFV are presenting in urban areas underscore the urgency of improving surveillance and diagnostic methods.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Snapshot A 40-year-old man presents to a hospital after flying from sub-Saharan Africa. He had been on a safari and had sustained multiple mosquito bites. He had not gotten his necessary vaccines, as the trip was planned last-minute.[medbullets.com]
  • The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Loss
  • No toxicity (weight loss or mortality) was observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day in sham-infected control animals. The observed minimal effective dose of T-1106 was 32 mg/kg/day administered either by oral or i.p. treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sofosbuvir protected YFV-infected neonatal Swiss mice from mortality and weight loss. Our pre-clinical results indicate that sofosbuvir could represent an option against YFV.[biorxiv.org]
Weight Gain
Collapse
  • Brazil's health officials are investigating whether it is related to a dam collapse in 2015 at an iron ore mine. The accident, Brazil's worst ever environmental disaster, could have disrupted monkeys' habitat and food supplies.[dailymail.co.uk]
Cranial Neuropathy
  • neuropathies, or Guillain-Barré syndrome. 2 , 4 , 5 Such YFV vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YFV-AND) occurs approximately at 0.8 events per 100 000 vaccine doses, with higher rates in those over age 60. 2 , 4 , 5 As opposed to natural YFV infection[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

HLA-A2
  • Furthermore, HLA-A2- and HLA-B7-restricted YFV epitope-specific effector cells predominantly displayed a CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)PD-1( )CD27(high) phenotype, which transitioned into a CD45RA( )CCR7(-)PD-1(-)CD27(low) memory population phenotype.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
HLA-B7
  • Furthermore, HLA-A2- and HLA-B7-restricted YFV epitope-specific effector cells predominantly displayed a CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)PD-1( )CD27(high) phenotype, which transitioned into a CD45RA( )CCR7(-)PD-1(-)CD27(low) memory population phenotype.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Therapeutic treatment was effective in significantly improving survival when T-1106 was administered beginning as late as 4 days after virus challenge with twice-daily treatment for 8 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Though not protective, treatment of YFV-infected, adult BALB/c mice with U0126 resulted in significant reduction of virus titers in brains.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therefore, combination of 864-cIgG with 2C9-cIgG for treatment of YF vaccination SAEs does not appear to provide an improvement on 2C9-cIgG therapy alone. Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment There is no specific treatment, only supportive care and treatment of symptoms. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen and naproxen) should be avoided because these may increase the risk for bleeding.[floridahealth.gov]
  • FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Treatment is supportive and symptomatic, however it may vary as infection is highly case-dependent(2).[msdsonline.com]

Prognosis

  • […] apoptosis coagulopathy occurs due to loss of hepatic synthesis of clotting factors Associated conditions hemorrhagic fever Prevention live-attenuated virus vaccine given at age 9-12 months in endemic areas given 10 days prior to travel to endemic areas Prognosis[medbullets.com]
  • If jaundice appears early this indicates a poor prognosis. Blood in urine or feces, as well as, liver dysfunction are also signs of disease. In the later stages of the disease, MODS develops [6] .[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
  • Jaundice may appear on the third day and indicates a poor prognosis. Transaminase elevations are also prognostic. In severe cases there may be spontaneous haemorrhage (‘coffee ground’ vomit), renal failure, delirium, coma and death.[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • What Is the Prognosis for Yellow Fever and Its Complications? Eighty-five percent of individuals recover fully from the first stage of illness, with no further consequences, and have lifelong immunity to yellow fever.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • Wild-type YFV was identified as the etiologic agent responsible for the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This finding demonstrated the utility of next generation sequencing and a metagenomic approach to identify an etiological agent and direct the response to a disease outbreak. Copyright 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Yellow Fever By Juanita Dawn Disease : Yellow fever Etiologic agent : It is a viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus from the genus Flavivirus . (1) Transmission : Yellow fever is transmitted and spread by the bite of infected female mosquitoes[austincc.edu]

Epidemiology

  • The topology of lineage BR-YFV_2016/18 was congruent with epidemiological and temporal patterns of the ongoing epidemic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is also strong statistical support for epidemiological links between four Brazilian regions and other countries.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Similarly, there is limited information on the molecular epidemiology of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa even though it most likely first emerged on this continent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] genotypes but also may increase the sensitivity of detection by introducing a second round of amplification, allowing a rapid differential diagnosis between dengue and yellow fever infection, which is required for effective surveillance and opportune epidemiologic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Virus Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. Abstract In October and November 2010, hospitals in northern Uganda reported patients with suspected hemorrhagic fevers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, San Juan, Puerto Rico. mjohansson@cdc.gov Abstract Yellow fever virus is a global health threat due to its endemicity in parts of Africa and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The World Health Organization disseminates the reagents for YFV testing to African reference laboratories, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with producing and providing these reagents.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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