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Zanamivir

4 Guanidino 2 4 Dideoxy 2 3 Dehydro N Acetylneuraminic Acid


Presentation

  • Both oral inhalation presentations are likely to deliver similar zanamivir concentrations to sites of influenza infection in the respiratory tract.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sepsis
  • AEs and serious AEs were reported in 85% and 34% of patients, respectively; serious AEs included bacterial pulmonary infections (8%), respiratory failure (7%), sepsis or septic shock (5%), and cardiogenic shock (5%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Biphasic Fever
  • A logistic regression model showed that episodes of biphasic fever increased by 1.19 times for every decrease of 1 year of age (P 0.016) and that the number of biphasic fever episodes in patients treated with LO was 5.80-times greater than that in patients[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sputum
  • Lower respiratory events were defined as acute bronchitis (including tracheobronchitis, productive cough with colored sputum, or persistent cough), or pneumonia (including bronchopneumonia).[jamanetwork.com]
  • Distribution Extent Delivered to epithelial lining of the respiratory tract following oral inhalation. 22 Amount of drug in respiratory tract depends on patient factors such as inspiratory flow rate. 1 May be present in sputum and nasal washings for at[drugs.com]
Respiratory Abnormalities
  • Many such cases were reported during postmarketing surveillance and causality to the drug difficult to assess. 1 Some patients without prior respiratory disease also may have respiratory abnormalities from acute respiratory infection that could resemble[drugs.com]
Constipation
  • […] patients and were similar across treatment groups; the most common adverse events (300 mg intravenous zanamivir, 600 mg intravenous zanamivir, oseltamivir) were diarrhoea (10 [5%], 15 [7%], 14 [7%]), respiratory failure (11 [5%], 14 [7%], 11 [5%]), and constipation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The rate of adverse events, most commonly diarrhea, respiratory failure, and constipation, was similar across all groups.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Treatment

  • No major decrease in viral susceptibility to NAIs was observed during or after NAI treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Muder RR Pneumonia in residents of long-term care facilities: epidemiology, etiology, management, and prevention. Am J Med. 1998;105319- 330 Google Scholar Crossref 8.[jamanetwork.com]
  • When all febrile episodes were considered with or without confirmation of influenza etiology, a significant efficacy could still be demonstrated and was 43% (95% CI, 14%-62%).[jama.ama-assn.org]
  • Further medical evaluation did not reveal any underlying cardiac illness or etiology. This was the only clinically significant ECG value reported during this study.[aac.asm.org]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Up to 15% of the population can develop influenza in any year. There is a 10-20% seroconversion rate with or without symptoms.[sps.nhs.uk]
  • Data for disease epidemiology, unit costs and resource use are derived from published studies and databases, and are based on estimates for Canada, where available.[cadth.ca]
  • Muder RR Pneumonia in residents of long-term care facilities: epidemiology, etiology, management, and prevention. Am J Med. 1998;105319- 330 Google Scholar Crossref 8.[jamanetwork.com]
  • The evolving epidemiology of influenza infection and disease. In: Brown LE, Hampson AW, Webster RG, eds. Options for the Control of Influenza III. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1996:45-49. 19.[jama.ama-assn.org]
  • Comparative epidemiology of pandemic and seasonal influenza A in households. The New England journal of medicine 2010; 362(23): 2175-84. Hayden FG, Fritz R, Lobo MC, Alvord W, Strober W, Straus SE.[cdc.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of Influenza Virus Influenza is caused by a viral infection of the respiratory tract. Once inside the host cell, the influenza virus replicates rapidly and spreads throughout the cell.[news-medical.net]

Prevention

  • Oseltamivir was effective in preventing SLCI, particularly when used in at-risk elderly subjects (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.63).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It has also been shown to prevent influenza infection and disease in an experimental model. Objective To examine the efficacy of zanamivir, administered once daily, in the prevention of influenza infection and disease.[jama.ama-assn.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. 12th ed. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation; 2012 May. Updates may be available at CDC website. 551.[drugs.com]
  • Dosing schedule of neuraminidase inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of influenza, in patients with renal insufficiency Creatinine clearance (ml/mn) Oseltamivir Zanamivir Treatment Prevention 90–60 75 mg twice daily 75 mg once daily 10 mg twice[dx.doi.org]
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 21, 2009. a b Hu, Y.; Lu, S.; Song, Z.; Wang, W.; Hao, P.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.; Yen, H.[en.wikipedia.org]

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