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Zika Virus Disease


  • Because many definite or probable cases present normal head circumference values and their mothers do not report having a rash, screening criteria must be revised in order to detect all affected newborn babies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this article, we present a case of ZIKV disease in a pediatric patient and review of the current literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, other Aedes species mosquitoes have been known to spread Zika, and these may be present.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Human infection induces an influenza-like syndrome that is associated with retro-orbital pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, or diarrhea. Diagnosis of Zika fever requires virus isolation and serology, which are time consuming or cross-reactive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Lymphadenopathy (isolated or generalized) was present in both groups (in 38% of ZIKV-positive women and 27% of ZIKV-negative women, P 0.12).[doi.org]
  • Mutations in KIF11 cause autosomal-dominant microcephaly variably associated with congenital lymphedema and chorioretinopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:356–62.[doi.org]
Respiratory Disorders
  • The prevalence of swallowing troubles and respiratory disorders was 45 and 33 %, respectively. Electrophysiological findings were in favour of the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type. Twelve (29 %) patients were mechanically ventilated.[doi.org]
Oral Ulcers
  • ., fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgias) either during his travel or since his return, and he did not have any of the following other symptoms: myalgias, chills, eye pain, oral ulcers, genital ulcers, anal ulcers, hematospermia, hematuria, dysuria[doi.org]
Eye Irritation
  • Seven exposure calls were reported to the Florida Poison Information Center, four of which reported symptoms (vomiting, eye irritation, dizziness, vertigo, and edema).[doi.org]
Normal Hearing
  • hearing level (dB nHL).[doi.org]
  • hearing screen will develop hearing loss is unknown.[doi.org]
  • Common symptoms included exanthema (88%), fever (76%), and arthralgia (72%). Fifty-nine percent of patients were exposed in South America; 71% were diagnosed in Europe.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days. There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.[web.archive.org]
Insect Bite
  • bites Last updated Sat 20 Feb 2016 More on this story Ennis-Hill coach: Move Rio camp to Zika-free zone Britain's camp for the Rio Olympics should be moved to a Zika-free location outside Brazil, Jessica Ennis-Hill's coach has said.[itv.com]
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For additional information on GBS and vaccines see: Vaccine Safety Concerns- Guillain Barré Syndrome Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine: Questions and Answers[web.archive.org]
  • KEYWORDS: Arbovirus; Encephalitis; Flavivirus; GuillainBarré syndrome; Myelitis; Neurocritical care; Neurology; Seizures; Thrombocytopenia; Zika; Zika virus[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEY POINTS: We confirmed a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia, during October 2015-April 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We describe the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia. .[eurosurveillance.org]
Absent Deep Tendon Reflex
  • BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a disorder characterized by acute, symmetric limb weakness with decreased or absent deep-tendon reflexes, was reported in Barranquilla, Colombia, after the introduction of Zika virus in 2015.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


Treponema Pallidum
  • Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Also, a major challenge is how and when such antiviral treatment would be applied, if available.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment No specific antiviral treatment is available for Zika virus disease. Treatment of symptoms may include rest, fluids, antipyretics, and analgesics.[web.archive.org]
  • Optimal treatment of these ZIKV-associated conditions is currently unclear and is largely guided by expert opinion or case reports/series. Further studies are needed to establish best treatment practices.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Because of severe brain disease and microcephaly, the fetus was given a poor prognosis for neonatal health.[doi.org]
  • Human fetal infection with parvovirus B19: maternal infection time in gestation, viral persistence and fetal prognosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:1133–6. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, et al.[doi.org]
  • Human fetal infection with parvovirus B19: maternal infection time in gestation, viral persistence and fetal prognosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:1133–6. CrossRef PubMed Rudolph KE, Lessler J, Moloney RM, Kmush B, Cummings DA.[web.archive.org]
  • Human fetal infection with parvovirus B19: maternal infection time in gestation, viral persistence and fetal prognosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:1133–6.[doi.org]
  • Families of infants with congenital Zika syndrome should receive information that includes discussion of concerns for development, function, feeding and growth, and prognosis.[doi.org]


  • For infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications who have negative results on all Zika virus tests performed, health care providers should evaluate for other possible etiologies and treat as indicated.[cdc.gov]
  • Research into the etiology of new clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders should be intensified to determine whether there is a causative link to Zika virus and/or other factors or co-factors.[who.int]
  • The MoH and Secretaries of Health from the affected states led a joint investigation to characterize and identify the etiology of the outbreak, with the support of national research institutes.[doi.org]
  • Some microcephaly cases of unknown etiology reported earlier were known to be idiopathic [ 48 ].[doi.org]
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome: Modern theories of etiology. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2011;11:197-204. 86. Fox M. Could we have a Zika vaccine soon? 2016. . Last accessed January 31, 2016. 87. Reuters & Al Jazeera.[doi.org]


  • Publication Zika virus transmission worldwide Publication Communicable disease threats report, 3-9 March 2019, week 10 News Health risks during the Carnival season in Brazil Publication Zika virus infection - Annual Epidemiological Report for 2016 Publication[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Keywords Zika ZIKV Singapore Asia Epidemiology Outbreak Background By early October 2016, 73 countries had reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) since 2007 [ 1 ].[doi.org]
  • However, data on the epidemiology and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease remain limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The number of cases increased substantially during epidemiologic weeks 42–43 (late October), reaching a peak of 27 cases per week during epidemiologic week 46 (mid-November).[doi.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Drug trials in pregnancy raise several scientific, ethical, and logistic challenges, which are compounded further in ZIKV because of limited knowledge of the disease pathophysiology and a product development pipeline in its infancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] criteria for causality, 7 the authors show a consistent, specific, temporal relationship, which is analogous to relationships between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome observed in other countries. 8,9 What is more difficult to demonstrate is pathophysiological[doi.org]
  • The pathophysiology of Zika-induced microcephaly is not known and was a subject of active research as of the end of 2016.[en.wikipedia.org]


  • Public health prevention messages about decreasing mosquito exposure, preventing sexual exposure, and preventing infection in pregnant women should be targeted to individuals traveling to or living in areas with Zika virus activity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] to prevent mosquito bites. 4.[web.archive.org]
  • Brooks, zud4@cdc.gov, 404-639-3894. 1 Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC; 2 Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC[doi.org]
  • Protect yourself & others. www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/protect-yourself-and-others.html. Updated February 7, 2018. Accessed April 24, 2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.[nlm.nih.gov]

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