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Zoon Balanitis

Balanitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis


  • Presentation Patient usually presents with concerns about penile changes; often history 1 year. Mild symptoms: itching, tenderness, bloodstained underwear.[gponline.com]
  • Publication Analysis Top Keywords histopathological features 4 presentation histopathological 4 uncircumcised middle-aged 4[pubfacts.com]
  • In the dermis, a dense bandlike or lichenoid infiltrate is present, frequently extending to mid reticular dermis.[indianjurol.com]
  • This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB...[readbyqxmd.com]
  • History and Physical It presents as symmetrical, well-marginated, erythematous, shiny plaques with multiple pinpoint redder spots, “cayenne pepper spots” involving the glans, prepuce, or both.[statpearls.com]
Burning Pain
  • Patients may report symptoms signifying sexual dysfunction or dyspareunia (itching, burning, pain, bleeding, tearing, splitting, hemorrhagic blisters), discomfort with urination, and narrowing of the urinary stream and/or concerns about the changing anatomy[online.epocrates.com]
  • […] oral antihistamines allergic contact dermatitis allergen avoidance supportive measures topical corticosteroids with significant pruritus oral antihistamines severe with exudate/weeping wet soaks psoriasis topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin[online.epocrates.com]
  • Zoon plasma cell balanitis is usually asymptomatic, but pruritus may occur. It is seen much more frequently in men between the ages of 40 and 80. It is seen mostly in uncircumcised men and is associated with poor hygiene and chronic irritation.[visualdx.com]
  • It was increased in size over 1 month associated with mild pruritus. Patient had no history of multiple sexual partners, no co-morbid illness, and no previous similar complaint.[urologyannals.com]
  • […] complete resolution, one patient had a marked response but relapsed during the treatment and the last patient had a partial response due to the development of a side effect that precociously required to stop the treatment.One patient referred a slight pruritus[dermatologyadvisor.com]
  • Usually, the condition is asymptomatic, though pruritus may be present. The course tends to be chronic and may persist for months to years, and sometimes poorly responsive to topical treatment.[statpearls.com]
  • Most penile melanotic macules, angiokeratomas, fibromas and angiomas do not have to be treated; however, penile skin lesions may also be symptoms of other diseases, such as circinate balanitis in Reiter's syndrome and multiple angiokeratomas in Fabry's[readbyqxmd.com]
  • (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp[readbyqxmd.com]
  • Manuel II, s/n 4100 Porto, Portugal Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinoma [1].[jle.com]
  • […] hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria[readbyqxmd.com]
  • The frequency employed was 8 Hz, the impulse energy was mostly 800 mJ. In most patients, a complete re-epithelization was achieved within ten days. There was complete clearing of lesions during follow-up (3 to 30 months).[statpearls.com]
  • […] dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania[readbyqxmd.com]
  • Early symptoms include itching, burning, dysuria, painful intercourse, urethritis with or without discharge; late symptoms include phimosis or paraphimosis. A sclerotic white ring at the tip of the prepuce is diagnostic.[gponline.com]
  • Prognosis Prognosis is usually good with treatment. [10] Diagnosis History and symptoms Patients with Zoon's balanitis could present with asymptomatic or symptomatic lesions with: [11] Itching ( pruritis ) in the genitalia region Discomfort in urination ( dysuria[wikidoc.org]
  • Case Report A 71-year-old uncircumcised man presented with a 3-month history of extremely painful genital sores associated with swollen foreskin and dysuria, not preceded by any flu-like symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • March 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy # 19 Jeremy M Hugh, Kendra Lesiak, Laura A Greene, Joseph C Pierson Zoon's balanitis, is typically found in older, uncircumcised males and can be asymptomatic, pruritic, or cause dysuria.[readbyqxmd.com]
  • Dysuria. Interference with urinary flow in severe cases. Obscuration of glans/external urethral meatus. Impotence or pain during coitus. Regional lymphadenopathy. Investigations Blood/urine testing for glucose if diabetes mellitus is possible.[patient.info]
Genital Lesions
  • CASE REPORT Case 1: Male, 37 years old, uncircumcised, was referred to the STD Clinic with a 1 year history of genital lesions and no prior treatment.[scielo.br]
  • Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions. Clin Dermatol. 2014 Mar-Apr. 32(2):307-14. [Medline]. Pileggi Fde O, Nogueira PL, de Melo Coelho MF, da Silveira Orsi G, de Fatima Gali Sorita Tazima M, Vicente YA, et al.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Key words: Circumcision, lasers, nonvenereal disease, topical calcineurin inhibitors, Zoon balanitis INTRODUCTION All the genital lesions are not sexually transmitted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Weight loss, topical therapy and laser ablation represent treatment options, but these patients are often refractory to treatment. Wollina, U.[dermatologyadvisor.com]
  • Of the three, one had a complete resolution, one responded but relapsed after treatment was stopped, and the last had a partial response but stopped treatment because of adverse drug effects.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • […] of treatment and topical treatment is not curative enough.[urologyannals.com]
  • The treatment modalities have also been reviewed in details, and the importance of circumcision as the treatment of choice has been emphasized. Still can't find the full text of the article? We can help you send a request to the authors directly.[pubfacts.com]
  • The treatment modalities have also been reviewed in details, and the importance of circumcision as the treatment of choice has been emphasized.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis Natural history If left untreated, patients with Zoon's balanitis may develop pain , phimosis and paraphimosis .[wikidoc.org]
  • Prognosis The prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is rendered. Patient Education For patient education resources, visit the Men's Health Center. Also, see the patient education article Foreskin Problems. Zoon JJ.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Prognosis Zoon balanitis is considered a benign entity, although isolated cases have been found in association with squamous cell carcinoma. In 1999, a case of penile carcinoma arising in a patient with Zoon balanitis was described by Joshi.[statpearls.com]
  • However, for severe conditions and cosmetic concerns, topical creams, topical lotions, and even surgery may be considered The prognosis of Plasma Cell Balanitis is excellent with suitable treatment, including surgery or laser therapy Who gets Plasma Cell[dovemed.com]
  • ZB is an entity of utmost importance both for the patients due to their concern regarding its prognosis and for the demato-venereologists due to its management being really challenging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • See also in: Overview Alerts and Notices Synopsis   Zoon plasma cell balanitis, or balanitis plasmacellularis, is characterized by chronic red patches or plaques of unknown etiology involving the glans penis and the foreskin.[visualdx.com]
  • Although of unknown etiology, different factors have been reported to be involved in its genesis (local infections, poor hygiene, heat, friction, and constant rubbing).[semanticscholar.org]
  • Zoon originally described this distinctive benign balanitis/balanoposthitis in 1952. [2] Etiology Etiology is still unclear.[statpearls.com]
  • […] surfaces) Definitions Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis is generic term for any inflammatory accumulation of plasma cells at mucosal or cutaneous sites Zoon balanitis is reserved for localized involvement of prepuce or glans penis ETIOLOGY[basicmedicalkey.com]
  • The etiology of zoon’s balanitis as well as the significance of mucinous metaplasia in these setting are unclear and need to be further investigated. 1.[file.scirp.org]


  • This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB.[pubfacts.com]
  • Epidemiology and Demographics There are no comprehensive studies studying the epidemiology and demographics of Zoon's disease in general population.[wikidoc.org]
  • Epidemiology It is described as an infrequent entity; however, it is probably underreported or underdiagnosed. Mallon et al. reported 27 cases of Zoon balanitis among 357 patients with the genital disease.[statpearls.com]
  • Terminology Also known as balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis, Zoon balanitis Balanitis: inflammation of glans Epidemiology Middle aged and elderly uncircumcised men Etiology Etiology unknown but probably reactive Clinical features Disease tends[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB...[readbyqxmd.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Pathophysiology Pathogenesis The exact pathogenesis of Zoon's balanitis is not clearly known, but following theories have been postulated: [5] Accumulation of epithelial debris and secretions between foreskin and penis proximal to coronal sulcus , smegma[wikidoc.org]


  • Primary Prevention There is no established primary prevention measures for preventing of Zoon's balanitis .[wikidoc.org]
  • In 1863, Virchow noted a connection between inflammation and cancer and sustained that this link may have implications for cancer prevention and treatment [ 8 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Transplantation Substance Use and Addiction Surgery Surgical Innovation Surgical Pearls Teachable Moment Technology and Finance The Rational Clinical Examination Tobacco and e-Cigarettes Toxicology Trauma and Injury Treatment Adherence United States Preventive[jamanetwork.com]
  • Penile inflammatory skin disorders and the preventive role of circumcision.[ijpvmjournal.net]
  • It can be treated, and it’s often easy to prevent with some TLC. You can get balanitis at any age. If you're circumcised, you’re not likely to get it. But if you still have your foreskin, you need to take extra care of the head of your penis .[webmd.com]

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