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Zygadenus Poisoning

Death Cama Poisoning


Presentation

  • CASE REPORT: A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two "wild onion" bulbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case Report A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two “wild onion” bulbs.[paperity.org]
  • Map Key Present in state Present in county; native to state Not present in state Present in county, adventive in state This map shows the native and adventive range of this species.[prairiemoon.com]
  • A 50-year-old man inadvertently ingested Z paniculatus and presented to the emergency department with profound gastrointestinal toxicity, hypotension, and bradycardia. The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The toxic alkaloid zygadenine (considered by some to be more potent that strychnine ) is present in all parts of the plant and can cause some serious consequences when ingested.[blogs.britannica.com]
Gastric Lavage
  • Induce vomiting, or perform gastric lavage; follow with activated charcoal and saline cathertic; general supportive treatment for symptoms; maintain fluid and electrolyte balance; monitor breathing and heart rate, blood pressure; subcutaneous application[elzorrocolorado.com]
  • Other “traditional” treatments for poisoning are discouraged, such as gastric lavage, which is a dying breed these days anyways, and activated charcoal due to risk of aspiration in a vomiting individual (3).[naturespoisons.com]
Asymptomatic
  • With supportive care, poisoned individuals become relatively asymptomatic within 24 hours of their ingestion. Patients may be discharged once asymptomatic, typically the day after ingestion, and do not have any known long term sequelae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dyspnea
Vomiting
  • CASE REPORT: A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two "wild onion" bulbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case Report A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two “wild onion” bulbs.[paperity.org]
  • Poisoning is characterized by salivation, vomiting, tachycardia, weakness, prostration and dyspnea. Death may occur within a few hours or not for a number of days.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Symptoms include: excessive watering (foaming) of the mouth, burning following by numbness of the lips and mouth, thirst, headache, dizziness, nausea, stomach pain, persistent vomiting, diarrhea, muscular weakness, confusion, slow and irregular heartbeat[elzorrocolorado.com]
  • Symptoms: Nausea, burning of mouth and throat, salivation, muscular weakness, vomiting, diarrhea. Toxic Principle: Steroidal alkaloids zygadenine and others. Severity: HIGHLY TOXIC, MAY BE FATAL IF EATEN![plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
Nausea
  • Symptoms: Nausea, burning of mouth and throat, salivation, muscular weakness, vomiting, diarrhea. Toxic Principle: Steroidal alkaloids zygadenine and others. Severity: HIGHLY TOXIC, MAY BE FATAL IF EATEN![plants.ces.ncsu.edu]
  • Symptoms of poisoning include spasms and rapid breathing, low heart rate, diarrhea, deep tendon reflexes, coma, twitching, nausea, abdominal pain, dizziness, flushing, headache, and blood in vomit.[wildernessarena.com]
  • CASE REPORT: A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two "wild onion" bulbs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Case Report A 45 year-old, previously healthy male presented to the ED with complaints of severe nausea and vomiting after ingesting two “wild onion” bulbs.[paperity.org]
  • Symptoms include: excessive watering (foaming) of the mouth, burning following by numbness of the lips and mouth, thirst, headache, dizziness, nausea, stomach pain, persistent vomiting, diarrhea, muscular weakness, confusion, slow and irregular heartbeat[elzorrocolorado.com]
Foaming at the Mouth
  • Symptoms include: excessive watering (foaming) of the mouth, burning following by numbness of the lips and mouth, thirst, headache, dizziness, nausea, stomach pain, persistent vomiting, diarrhea, muscular weakness, confusion, slow and irregular heartbeat[elzorrocolorado.com]
  • All parts of this native perennial plant, including the seeds, contain an alkaloid (zygacine is believed to be the primary toxic compound) that causes foaming at the mouth, vomiting, lowered body temperature, difficulty breathing, coma and death if ingested[thenatureniche.com]
Drooling
  • Symptoms include vomiting, drooling, decrease in blood pressure, pupil dilation, diarrhea and weakness. Cases in which a larger dose has been consumed can result in seizure, coma and death.[blogs.britannica.com]
Eruptions
  • Improve your competency and readiness with the latest guidance on volcanic eruptions, extreme sports, splints and slings, wilderness cardiology, living off the land, aerospace medicine, mental health in the wilderness, tactical combat casualty care, and[books.google.com]
Flushing
  • Symptoms of poisoning include spasms and rapid breathing, low heart rate, diarrhea, deep tendon reflexes, coma, twitching, nausea, abdominal pain, dizziness, flushing, headache, and blood in vomit.[wildernessarena.com]
Muscle Weakness
  • weakness, convulsions, involuntary urination. paralysis, loss of consciousness, coma, death due to respiratory paralysis [Solanum-type Alkaloids] [Where poisons are found] [Symptoms of poisoning] [Return to list of toxicants][poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu]
Ataxia
  • […] gastrointestinal tract irritants -inflamed intestinal mucosa, ulceration, hemorrhage, stomach pains, constipation or diarrhea cholinesterase inhibitors and thus affect the nervous system -apathy, drowsiness,salivation, labored breathing, trembling, ataxia[poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu]
  • An hour after ingestion he experienced ataxia (a loss of voluntary muscle movement and uncoordination), nausea, and vomiting.[naturespoisons.com]
Seizure
  • Cases in which a larger dose has been consumed can result in seizure, coma and death.[blogs.britannica.com]
  • […] perioral and limb numbness, and paresthesias, which are followed by vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia with first-degree heart block or junctional bradycardia, dysrhythmias (including torsade de pointes), hypotension, CNS and respiratory depression, and seizures[mhmedical.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment: No know antidote, treat symptomatically.[elzorrocolorado.com]
  • He was noted to have marked hypotension and bradycardia in the ED, which initially responded to treatment with IV fluids and atropine. The plant was identified as a species of Zigadenus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He was noted to have marked hypotension and bradycardia in the ED, which initially responded to treatment with IV fluids and atropine. The plant was identified as a species ofZigadenus.[paperity.org]
  • Treatment For anyone who has eaten or touched any portion of a lily and experiences symptoms, immediate care must be given. Phone the doctor or poison control center and rinse off the affected area with clean water.[homeguides.sfgate.com]
  • Other “traditional” treatments for poisoning are discouraged, such as gastric lavage, which is a dying breed these days anyways, and activated charcoal due to risk of aspiration in a vomiting individual (3).[naturespoisons.com]

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology and management of Zigadenus poisoning are reviewed. Emergency physicians, particularly in rural areas, should be aware of the morbidity caused by ingestion of some Zigadenus species.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Get the skills you need now with new information on global humanitarian relief and expedition medicine, plus expanded coverage of injury prevention and environmental preservation.[books.google.com]
  • The prevention of grooming means that more pollen is transferred between the orchid plants themselves, thus serving the pollination aims of the plant. Drunken effects are noted in other cases.[buzzaboutbees.net]
  • Before you get started, one of the most important things to know about the seeds of wild plants is that many have built-in dormancy mechanisms that prevent the seed from germinating.[prairiemoon.com]
  • Care should be taken to prevent the exposure of potatoes to sunlight. These alkaloids are not destroyed by cooking or drying at high temperatures. New potato varieties can not be introduced unless they contain less than 20 mg glycoalkaloids/100 g.[poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu]
  • If someone has eaten one of these lilies, take immediate action and call your doctor at once to prevent death or serious illness from these plants. Lilies Containing Oxalates Calcium oxalate is a serious substance.[homeguides.sfgate.com]

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